英语语法名词性从句知识:名词性从句的关键点

范文1:英语语法词性从句知识:理解引导词性从句what【以文搜文】

    应如何理解引导名词性从句的what呢?它还是表示“什么”吗?请看题:__________ he said at the meeting astonished everyone present.A. What B. That C. If D. Whether分析:此题应选 A。选项 C(if) 显然不能选,因为 if 通常不能引导主语从句;选项 B(that) 和 D(whether) 虽然都可以引导主语从句,但两者除了意思不合题意外,还有它们在主语从句中都不充当句子成分,而此句中的 he said 缺宾语。在名词性从句中,what 根据情况不同,可能有两方面的用法和意思:1. 用作连接代词,表示“什么”(由疑问词变来)。如:I don’t know what he gave her. 我不知道他给了她什么。What he will say at the meeting is not known to us. 他在会上将说些什么,我们还不知道。2. 表示“……所……的(东西)”,在结构上相当于一个名词加一个定语从句(所以有人称这样用的what 为关系代词型的what)。如:■把你买的东西拿给我看。Show me what you bought.→Show me the thing that you bought.这是他想要的东西。This is what he wants.→This is the thing that he wants.我们需要的是钱。What we need is money.→The thing that we need is money. 来自: 许愿真 >《高中语法》转藏到我的图书馆 献花(0)分享到:类似文章2012高考英语易错题:名词...学习干货丨非主谓句物主代词12-03-06高三英语《名词性...3 名词性wh高三英语教案:高考复习专...更多类似文章 >>

范文2:词性从句【以文搜文】

范文3:词性从句【以文搜文】

第十六章 名词性从句

一、概念

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

二、引导名词性从句的连接词

1、引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:

(1)连词:that(无任何词意)whether,if(均表示“是否”表明从句内容的不确定性)as if ,as though(均表示“好像”,“似乎”)以上在从句中均不充当任何成分。

(2)连接代词what,whatever,who,whoever,whom,whose,which.whichever,whomever。

(3)连接副词:when, where, how, why

2、不可省略的连词:

(1)介词后的连词

(2)引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。

1)That she was chosen made us very happy.

2)We heard the news that our team had won.

3、whether与if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,只能用whether:

(1)whether引导主语从句并在句首

(2)引导表语从句

(3)whether从句作介词宾语

(4)从句后有"or not"

Whether he will come is not clear.

4、大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。

(1)It is not important who will go.

(2)It is still unknown which team will win the match.

三、名词性从句的解题技巧

1、当连接词从句中作主语、宾语、表语时,用连接代词。

2、当连接词在从句中作状语时,用连接副词(此时不能用介词+which)。

3、which在引导名词性从句时,只译为“哪一个”。

4、that引导名词性从句时不做任何成分,这是区别定语从句与同位语从句的标志。

四、主语从句

1、作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。

(1)What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。

(2)Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。

(3)It is known to us how he became a writer.

我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。

(4)Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced.

英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。

2、有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而

把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下:

(1) It + be + 名词 + that从句

(2)It + be + 形容词 + that从句

(3)It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that从句

(4)It + 不及物动词 + that 从句

另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要

用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有:

1)It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that ?

2)It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that?

3)It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that?

五、宾语从句

1、名词句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。引导宾语从句的关联词与引导主语从句、表语

从句的关联词大致一样,在句中可以作谓语动词或介词及非谓语动词的宾语。

2、由连接词that引导的宾语从句

由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文

体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。例如:

1)He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow.

他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。

2)We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good

in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。

☆注意:在demand、order、suggest、decide、insist, desire, request, command等

表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。

1)I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。

2)The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once.

司令员命令部队马上出发。

3、用who,whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever,

whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。

1)I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。

2)She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。

3)She will give whoever needs help a warm support.

凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。

4、用whether或if引导的宾语从句,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whether与if 在作

“是否”的意思讲时在有些情况下一般只能用whether,不用if:

5、注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而

使用不同时态;当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,

如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现

象,则从句仍用现在时态。例如:

1)he studies English every day. (从句用一般现在时)

2)he studied English last term. (从句用一般过去时)

3)I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时)

4)he has studied English since 1998. (从句用现在完成时)

5)The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America.

5. think, believe, imagine, suppose等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如:

1)We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。

2)I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。

六、表语从句

1、在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用as if引导。其基本结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that从句。例如:

1)The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。

2)That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。

3)This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题所在。

4)That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。

5)It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。

☆注意:当主语是reason时,表语从句要用that引导而不是because。例如:

The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning . ☆注意:whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的if却通常不用于引导表语从句。

七、同位语从句

1、同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由that引导,可用于同位语从句的名词有advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word。

1)The news that we won the game is exciting.我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。

2)I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。

3)The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill.

他想到可能玛丽生病了。

2、同位语从句和定语从句的区别:

that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。 试比较下面两个例句:

1)I had no idea that you were here.(that引导同位语从句,不能省略)

2)Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece?

(that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略)

范文4:词性从句【以文搜文】

句子基本结构

一. 简单句:

1. He stood up. (主+谓)

2. I love my motherland. (主+谓+宾)

3. He lent me 100 yuan. (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

4. The news made us excited. (主+谓+宾+宾补)

5. The soup tastes delicious. (主+系+表)

二. 并列句(compound sentence)

1. Honey is sweet, but the bee stings.

2. Hurry up, or you'll be late.

3. Work hard and you'll pass your exams.

并列句是两个或两个以上的________由________and,so,or,but等连接而成的。

三. 复合句(Complex Sentence)

If it rains tomorrow, I won’t go out.

When I saw your eyes, I felt they were the brightest stars in the sky.

The girl who is sitting under the tree is my sister.

由主句和一个或多个从句组成的句子叫做复合句。英语中从句有三大类即状语从句、定语从句和名词性从句。 名词性从句:主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句

定义:在复合句中相当于一个名词,充当主语、宾语、表语、同位语的从句。

判断从句类型

1.That George and Lucy got married last week was a fact.

2.Whether ways will be found to stop pollution or not is what worries the public.

3.It makes no difference whether we will go today or tomorrow.

4.We haven’t decided yet where we are going to place our new furniture.

1

主语从句

连接词:that, whether, 及wh-疑问词

That he may buy you an expensive gift is a lie.

That many of the languages are threatened and may disappear

is a serious matter to the people in Britain.

Whether the man is still alive is uncertain.

What contributes to the disease is still a question.

Attention : 1) that虽不充当成分,但是句子结构的一部分不可缺少

That smoking is harmful to our health is known to all. 吸烟有害健康众所周知。

2)主语从句通常可转换为it作形式主语

1) That the Sino-American relations will be improved under the Obama government is hoped.

= It is hoped that the Sino-American relations will be improved under the Obama government.

2) Whether the man is still alive is uncertain.

= It is uncertain whether the man is still alive.

宾语从句 Object clause:

连接词:that, whether/ if;及wh-疑问词

I will give the honor to whoever will volunteer to cooperate with us.

I just can’t tell you who will volunteer to help us.

3) Tell us how it was that you got hurt on your way home.

注意:

1) I don't think you are right. 否定体现在主句上 我认为他不能在最后期限之前完成任务. I don’t believe he can finish the task before the deadline.

2)We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone. it作形式宾语,that引导的宾语从句后置 最后一个来的人付账,我们把这定成规矩。

Let’s make it a rule that the last one to come pays the bill.

2

3)“一个坚持,两个命令,四个建议,四个要求”,wish 和 would rather 等后的宾语从句用虚拟语气

表语从句

作用:对主语进行解释说明。 连接词: that,及wh-疑问词

The trouble is that we are running out of money.

My suggestion is that everyone buy a dictionary.

The problem is how we could get through to him.

as if, as though也可引导表语从句

It looks as if/as though it is going to rain.

She usually feels as if her husband were a stranger.

同位语从句 Appositive clause:

跟在某些抽象名词后面,对该名词作解释说明

常用名词: belief, fact, idea, hope, news, doubt, thought, information, word, opinion, suggestion… 常用连词:that,及wh-疑问词

Are you in favour of the suggestion that we spend large amounts of money on space exploration? Word came that the nuclear plant was to explode.

Can you answer the question when the universe started?

I have no idea what made him so angry.

I have no idea when he will come back.

I have no idea whether the nuclear plant in Japan will explode again.

1. 令我们印象深刻的是他们在戏中完美的表演。(sth. impress sb. )

________ _________ ________ deeply is their perfect

2. 我们对他们的印象是他们在戏中表演的如此的完美。

Our impression of them is ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ in the play.

3. 他们在戏中表演的是多么的完美, 这给我们留下了深刻的印象。

We are deeply impressed by ________ ________ ________

4. 我们有这样一个深刻的印象,那就是她们在戏中表演的如此的完美

We have a deep impression _________ _________ __________ _____ ___________ in the play. 语法填空

Getting involved in extracurricular activities is a fun way to challenge yourself. People agrees ______ participating in after-school activities ______ (bring) us some benefits.

______ matters a lot is ______ it can relieve our study pressure. In addition, a club or association is ______ you can make new friends with students different from you and develop the spirit of cooperation and hard work.

In a word, ______ you take part in extracurricular activities really ________ (make) a big difference.

3

范文5:词性从句【以文搜文】

名词性从句

1. The sport then was a little different from ________ we currently know as gymnastics.

2. All of us have already known _______she will choose is the opportunity to go abroad.

3. He sold out all his stamps at____________ he thought was a reasonable price.

4. It is good manners to eat up _______is left in your plate.

5. It even leaves the scientists in wonder ________ they should call the newly-born creature, which looks half- human and half-animal. magician Liu Qian played in this year’s Spring Gala.

7. —It’s difficult for college graduates to find a good job in China.

—It depends on whether they have ________ it takes to be successful in today’s world.

8. There is some doubt among people_______$ 749 is too much for an iphone4.

9. It is obvious that people hold different opinions about ______ voluntary services should be financially rewarded.

10. Word comes ______free souvenirs will be given to _____comes first.

11. —I’ll ask the teacher about the attributive clause. I’m very puzzled about it.

—That’s just ________ most of our classmates have doubt. 12. Sometimes, _______ we show our gratitude for a person is reflected in the kind of food we serve him or her.

13. The road is covered with snow. I can’t understand ________ they insist on going by motor-bike.

a little girl was twice run over and then ignored by 18 passers.

15. A warm thought came to me _________ I might help wash my mom’s feet on Thanksgiving Day.

16. A good idea came to her _____ she could live with her best friend in that city during the holiday.

17. His father got him a job in a bank but soon it became clear he was not fit for that kind of work.

18. ______ is surprising that there are so many Chinese restaurants in Toronto.

19. The fact ________ this country spends more on its military than on education and health care combined is a serious and worrying thought.

20. These shoes look very good. I wonder _______.

21. Police have found ____ appears to be the lost ancient statue. 22. _______ one of you breaks the window will have to pay for it.

23. struck me most in the movie was the father’s deep love for his son.

24. It’s good to know _____ the dogs will be well cared for while we’re away.

the newly formed committee’s policy can be put into practice。

makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer.

people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary. 28. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief _____ you are better than anyone else on the sports field.

29. 30. 31. Do not let any failures discourage you, for you can never tell _____close you may be to victory.

32. The companies are working together to create _________ they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century.

33. __________ was most important to her, she told me, was her family.

34. Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from ______ their parents speak at home.

35. Tomorrow is Tom’s birthday. Have you got any idea _____ the party is to be held?

36. The news ______ our athletes won another gold medal was reported in yesterday’s newspaper.

37. The last time we had great fun was ______ we were visiting the Water Park.

38. ____________ wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way.

39. Having checked the doors were closed, and ________ all the lights were off, the boy opened the door to his bedroom.

40. The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer. Warm sunshine and soft sands make ______ it is.

41. Why not try your lick downtown, Bob? That’s _________ the best jobs are.

范文6:词性从句【以文搜文】

名词性从句

名词性从句相当于名词,可分别作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此,名词性从句成分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位从句。 (一)引导名词性从句的连接词 1、连接代词:who, whose, whom, what, which。有词义,在从句中担任成分,如主语、表语、宾语、或定语等。 2、连接副词:when, where, why, how。有词义,在从句中担任成分,作状语。 3、连接词:that, whether, if, as if。that 无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可省略;if

(whether), as if虽有词义,但在从句中不担任成分。

(二)主语从句

1、主语从句在复合句作主语。

e.g. Who will go is not important.

2、用it作形式主语,主语从句放在句末。

e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not.

3、that引导主语从句时,不能省略。

e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised.

注意:that从句作主语和宾语时,可以用it 来替换成以下几种结构表达。

(A)It is clear/certain/likely/true/surprising that…

(B)It is a pity/shame/good idea/no wonder that ...

(C)It is said/reported/ believed/known/thought/suggested that …

(D)It seems/happens that。

如: It happened that I went out last night.

It is said that China will win in the World Cup.

(三)表语从句

1、表语从句在复合句中作表语,位于系动词之后。

e.g. The question was who could go there.

(四)宾语从句

1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词that一般可省略。

e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right.

2宾语从句中的连接词that有时可省有时又不可省,在以下几种情况中that不能省略:

(A)当that从句和主句谓语动词之间有插入词语或者从句主语之间有插入语时,that 不可省略;

(B)当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作宾语时,that不能省;

(C)当that作介词宾语时,that不可省掉。如:

He judged that, because he was a child, he did not understand wine

Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried.

The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do.

3、whether和if的用法。

1)whether和if在宾语从句中可以互换,但是作介词宾语时连接词一般用whether。

如: It all depends on whether they will come back.

2)后面直接跟or not 时用whether。如:

I didn’t know whether or not he had arrived in Wuhan.

3)主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中只能用whether。如:

Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet.

The question is whether they have so much money.

We ought to discuss carefully the question whether we can do it or not.

4)whether常与or连用表示一种选择,if不能这样用

The question of whether they are male or female is not important.

5)whether也可与动词不定式连用但if不能。如:

I have not decided whether to go or not.

6)宾语从句提前时用whether不用if。如:

Thank you, but whether I’ll be free I’m not sure at the moment.

7)引导条件状语从句时, 必须用if .

If it rains tomorrow , we won’t go to the Summer Palace .

(五)同位语从句

同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语,一般位于该名词(如:news、fact、suggestion、truth、plan、belief、doubt、possibility、idea 、promise等)之后,说明该名词的具体内容。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back.

The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.

注意: 同位语从句与定语从句中that的区别。

同位语从句中的连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不担当任何句子成分;而定语从句中的关系代词that在句中做宾语或主语,宾语与先行词有修饰关系。如果句子是同位语从句,就应用连词that而不能用which.同位语从句一般放在表具体含义的名词后解释名词的含义或内容,如以下名词:news、fact、suggestion、truth、plan、belief、doubt、possibility、idea、promise等,而定语从句只是对先行词的限定和修饰。如:

They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.

The hope she expressed is that they would come to visit China again.

( 六)疑问词 + ever和no matter + 疑问词的区别。

①疑问词 + ever可引导名词性从句,在主从句中要充当一定的部分。如:

Whoever breaks the rule must be punished.

You can choose whatever you like in the shop.

②疑问词 + ever还可引导让步状语从句。如:

Whoever breaks the rule, he must be punished,

Whatever you do, you must do it well.

③no matter + 疑问词只能引导让步状语从句。如:

No matter what you do, you must do it well.

No matter who breaks the rule, he must be punished.

(七)名词性从句中主句和从句的时态一致

(1)宾语从句中主句和从句的时态保持一致,但如果从句中表示提示的是客观现象,虽然主句是过去时态,从句仍用一般现在时。如:

Hello,I didn’t know you were in London. How long have you been here?

The teacher told us that light travels at a very high speed.

(2)主语从句作主语相当于单数第三人称作主语,谓语动词用单数,如果由and 连接两个或两个以上的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词用复数;由两个或多个连接词引导一个主语从句,谓语动词用单数。如:

When the meeting will begin ______not been decided yet.

When they will start and where they go _______not been decided yet.

When and where the meeting will begin _______not been decided.

(八)、名词性从句的词序

名词性从句在句中要用陈述句语序。如:

He asked me what was the matter with me.

We’ve heard the news that we’ll move into the new house.

Whatever you say will interest us all.

(九)that和what的区别。

that 引导名词性从句时,在主从句中不以当任何句子成分,也没有任何含义;而what引导名词性从句时,在主从句中都要充当一定主语、宾语、表语或定语,what的意思是:“什么, …的….”

What surprised me most is her cheerful expression on her face.

★ 语法:名词性从句几大考点及热点

名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。因为它是从句,因此具有句子的特点,有主、谓成分;同时又具有名词性特点,所以可以在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或同位语。

一、引导词 what 与 that 的区别

引导主、宾、表语从句时,what 要充当主语、宾语或表语等句子成分,that 不作任何成分,而只在语法上起连接作用。例如

_________ we can’t get seems better than _________ we have.

A. What; what B. What; that C. That; that D. That; what

解析:本句包含一个主语从句和一个宾语从句,且两个从句都缺乏宾语,可见两个引导词都必须充当从句的宾语,所以答案为 A 项。

在下面的例句中,that 不充当任何成分,只起语法连接作用(因为句子本身不缺成分): That the former Iraq president Saddam was captured has been proved.

二、引导词 whether 和 if 的区别

通常,引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句时,连词要用 whether,而不用 if ;习惯上也只能说 whether or not,而不说 if or not .例如:

_________ the meeting will be held in Beijing is not known yet.

A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That

解析:题中的从句位于句首,不难知道这是一个主语从句,根据句意,答案为 C 项。但如果宾语或主语从句为否定句时,只能用 that,不能用 whether 引导。如:

That you don’t like him is none of my business.

三、名词性从句的语序

与别的从句一样,名词性从句必须用自然语序,即使在疑问句中,从句也不倒装(而在主句上倒装)。例如:

No one can be sure _________ in a million years.

A. what man will look like B. what will man look like

C. man will look like what D. what look will man like

解析:由于从句不能倒装,所以答案只能选 A 项。同时还须注意,从句的引导词必须始终置于句首。

四、who / whoever,what / whatever 等的区别

一般说来,what / who 等含特指意义,而 whatever,whoever 等含泛指意义。例如: It is generally considered unwise to give a child _________ he or she wants.

A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever

解析:答案为 B 项。 Whatever 引导一个宾语从句,并且作 wants 的宾语。这里的 whatever 不能改成 what,因为题意想表达的显然是“无论孩子要什么,就给他 / 她什么是不明智的”,具有泛指的概念。同时要注意,这里 whatever 也不能改用 no matter what,因为后者只能引导状语从句。

五、where,when,why 等连接副词引导的名词性从句

where,when,why 等连接副词也可以引导名词性从句,使用的关键是:这个词必须符合句子的逻辑要求。例如:

— I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

— Is that _________ you had a few days off?

A. why B. when C. that D. where

解析:答案为 A 项,why 引导的从句作表语,同时 why 在从句中作原因状语。又如: — Do you remember _________ he came?— Yes. I do,he came by car.

A. how B. when C. that D. if

解析:答案为 A 项。从答语 he came by car 可知,这里问的是 he 来的方式,所以用 how 引导。

六、“介词 + who(m) ”引导的宾语从句与“介词 +who(m) ”引导的宾语从句的区别

介词后面的引导词用主格还是宾语,决定于它在宾语从句中作主语还是宾语。例如: It was a matter of _________ would take the position.

A. who B. whoeverC. whom D. whomever

解析:答案为 A 项。由于这里的引导词在从句中作主语,所以要用主格 who (作宾语时自然要用 whom )。比较下例:

Our country has thousands of excellent scientists,most of whom have received higher education at home.

这是一个“介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句。引导定语从句的是“ most of + 关系代词”,而不只是这个关系代词,同时这个引导词又作介词 of 的宾语,所以要用宾格 whom .

七、名词性从句中有插入成分时

此时应注意两点:一是从句仍然不倒装,而在插入成分上倒装;二是要注意主语的主格和宾格的选择。例如:

_________ you have seen both fighters,_________ will win?

A.Since; do you think who B. As; who you think

C. When; whoeverD. Since; who do you think

解析:答案为 D 项。其中 do you think 是插入成分,其余部分是宾语从句,作 think 的宾语。由于引导词在从句中作主语,所以要用主格 who .

八、引导词 that 的省略

引导宾语从句时,that 通常可以省略,但引导主语、表语和同位语从句时,that 不能省略。例如:

China’s success in manned-space-craft travel shows _________ out country has become one of the greatest powers in space research.

A. what B. whichC. 不填 D. it that

解析:该句中的从句作 shows 的宾语,是宾语从句,又因为从句中不缺主语、宾语,所以只能用 that 引导;又因引导宾语从句时 that 可以省略,所以答案是 C 项。

九、同位语从句引导词 where,when 的用法特点

说明先行词内容的同位语从句的引导词 where,when 与被说明的名词在概念上不一致。但引导定语从句的引导词却必须保持一致。试比较:

① Then arose the question _________ we were to get so much money.

② This is the house _________ the great man Mao Zedong was born 110 years ago.

A. where B. that C. about which D. in which

解析:①的答案为 A 项;②的答案为 A 项或 D 项。先行词与 where,when 概念一致时,是定语从句,此时,关系副词 where 或 when 可以用“介词 +which ”形式代替。①中的 question 与 where 不表同一概念,可见是同位语从句,where 不能改用“介词 +which ”的形式。②中的 house 与 where 同表地点,所以选 A 项或 D 项都可以。

随堂练习

一、单项选择(共50小题;共50分)

1. I made a promise to myself this year, my first year in high school, would be different.

A. whether B. what C. that D. how

2. The fact has worried many scientists the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years.

A. what A. where B. which B. why C. that C. what D. though D. which 3. The exhibition tells us we should do something to stop air pollution.

4. To improve the quality of our products, we asked for suggestions had used the products.

A. whoever B. who C. whichever D. which

5. --- I wonder Mary has kept her figure after all these years.

--- By working out every day. A. where B. how C. why D. if

6. --- I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays.

--- That's I don't agree. You should have a more active life. A. where A. how B. how B. whether C. when C. what D. what D. why 7. It doesn't matter you pay by cash or credit card in this store.

8.How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely on he goes with, whether his friends or relatives.

A. what B. who C. how D. why

9. There is clear evidence the most difficult feeling of all to interpret is bodily pain.

A. what A. why A. why B. if B. when B. which C. how C. which C. that D. that D. what D. whether 10. I'd like to start my own business—that's I'd do if I had the money. 11. There is much truth in the idea kindness is usually served by frankness.

12. As many as five courses are provided, and you are free to choose suits you best.

A. whatever B. whichever C. whenever D. wherever

13. Some people care much about their appearance and always ask if they look fine in they are wearing.

A. that B. what C. how D. which

14. It is still under discussion the old bus station should be replaced with a modern hotel or not.

A. whether A. That B. when B. What C. which C. Who D. where D. Which makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer.

16. It is difficult for us to imagine life was like for slaves in the ancient world.

A. where B. what C. which D. why

17. The famous scientist has been working hard since childhood. That is he has gained so many achievements.

A. because B. what C. how D. why

18. --- Have you finished the book?

--- No. I've read up to the children discover the secret cave. A. which B. what C. that D. where

19. One reason for her preference for city life is she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants.

A. that B. how C. what D. why

20. --- I told you that he would come to see you.

--- Actually I had little doubt it was true. A. whether B. that C. since D. if

21. --- Are you firmly against any independence move by Taiwan?

--- Of course. That is our basic interest lies. A. why B. when C. where D. what

22. We've offered her the job, but I don't know she'll accept it.

A. where B. what C. whether D. which

23. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was it was rather closely modeled on his own life.

A. what A. where

B. that B. when

C. why C. how

D. whether D. why

24. The best moment for the football star was he scored the winning goal. 25. News came from the school office Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University.

A. which

B. what

C. that

D. where

26. The newcomer went to the library the other day and searched for he could find about Mark Twain.

A. wherever

B. however

C. whatever

D. whichever

27. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief you are better than anyone else on the sports field.

A. how

B. that

C. which

D. whether

28. Exactly the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain, but it was probably around 1565.

A. whether A. Whether

B. why B. What

C. when C. That

D. how D. How

some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. 30. --- Is it true that Mike refused an offer from Yale University yesterday?

--- Yeah, but I have no idea he did it; that's one of his favorite universities.

A. when A. what

B. why B. how

C. that C. that

D. how D. why

31. The shocking news made me realize terrible problems we would face. 32. We should consider the students' request the school library provide more books on popular science.

A. that

B. when

C. which

D. where

33. As John Lennon once said, life is happens to you while you are busy making other plans.

A. which A. Where

B. that B. How

C. what C. Why

D. where D. When

we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel.

Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won't accept it.

A. That

B. Why

C. Where

D. How

36. Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt he could have expressed it differently.

A. why A. Why

B. how B. When

C. that C. That

D. whether D. What

the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. 38. --- Is there any possibility you could pick me up at the airport?

--- No problem. A. when A. since

B. that B. what

C. whether C. when

D. what D. whether

39. It is not immediately clear the financial crisis will soon be over.

40. The notice came around two in the afternoon the meeting would be postponed.

A. when A. Whoever

B. that B. Whatever

C. whether C. Whichever

D. how D. Wherever

one of you breaks the window will have to pay for it. 42. --- Why do you think the film star is getting less popular?

--- I guess the way she wears is annoys her fans most. A. which

B. where

C. how

D. what

43. The question came up at the meeting we had not enough money to do the research.

A. whether

B. if

C. that

D. what

44. "Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea." This is my mother used to tell me.

A. what

B. how

C. that

D. whether

45. It is uncertain side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it.

A. that

B. what

C. how

D. whether

46. --- What a mess! You are always so lazy!

--- I'm not to blame, mum. I am you have made me. A. how

B. what

C. that

D. who

47. From space, the earth looks blue. This is about seventy-one percent of its surface is covered by water.

A. why

B. how

C. because

D. whether

48. Some people believe has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future.

A. whatever

B. whenever

C. wherever

D. however

49. As a new diplomat, he often thinks of he can react more appropriately on such occasions.

A. what B. which C. that D. how

50. At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see it got any better.

A. when B. how C. why D. if

范文7:词性从句【以文搜文】

    第一节 基本知识与基本概念【什么是名词性从句?】上一章,我们了解的是定语从句,加上我们以前了解的宾语从句和状语从句,好像“名词性从句”这个概念本身就和我们所熟知的概念不是一路货色。没错。请看下表:根据从句在句子中的功能分根据从句的性质分定语从句形容词性从句主语从句名词性从句宾语从句表语从句同位语从句状语从句副词性从句只是,在平时老师讲课时,形容词性从句和副词性从句并没有形成气候罢了。相比之下,名词性从句由于“家丁兴旺”而大行其道。但是,作为学生,我们有必要了解这些基本概念的来龙去脉。【主语从句】顾名思义,主语从句在句子中作主语。有时本身出现在主语的位置上,也有时出于句子结构的考虑退到句子的尾部,前面用形式主语it代替。从句作主语时,谓语动词一般为单数形式。如:What I saw was beyond any verbal description.That his hair was turning grey worried him a bit.Why the company denied the contract is still unknown.When and where the government will build a city square is under discussion.It is pretty annoying that a small part of the machine is missing.It remains to be seen whether the new novel will be well received.【宾语从句】在句子中作宾语的从句就是宾语从句。由于这是同学们接触比较早的一种从句,应该问题不大。所以在近年的高考题中,以宾语从句的知识作为考点的题目较少。但是,宾语从句也有自己的特殊情况,如介词的宾语,形容词的宾语,宾语从句提前和并列的宾语从句等现象。如:We assumed that there would be more than 100 guests.He told the police in detail what he saw and heard.Nobody is sure what humans will look like in a million years.That will depend on whether they can get the chance.Whether I will have the time I am not sure at the moment.The conductor complained that we were not gifted in singing and that he would never come again.【表语从句】表语从句的最重要脸谱就是它们应该出现在系动词的后面。如:The only question left is how often the workers are paid.His idea for the coming weekend is that we go skating.【同位语从句】从脸谱上看,同位语从句最为麻烦。因为它们也是出现在一个名词的后面,起着解释说明的作用。有点像定语从句。这个点是许多学生容易混淆的地方。但是,只有我们能把握住关键,即:定语从句的先行词在从句中必须作一个成分,并且这个成分应该是个空白,也就是说,定语从句必须缺少成分。这一点恰恰是同位语从句所不能做到的。同位语从句前面的名词在从句中是没有位置的。况且,也不是所有的名词后面都会跟同位语从句,只有那些“有内容的名词”才需要解释。如fact, news, idea, truth, hope, problem, information, belief, thought, doubt等。如:That fact that the policeman didn’t fire at the man at all was ignored.Do you have any idea what is going on in the classroom.The possibility that we can work at home makes everybody excited.尽管同学们在这个方面有诸多问题,但好消息还是有的,在新出台的《山东省高考考试说明》中,同位语从句不在必考的名单之中。大家可以放心了。【连接代词、连接副词和连接词】通过以上介绍,我们可以看出,四种名词性从句都需要有一个连接性词在从句的开头。这个词是什么性质,要看它在从句中作作的成分,如果作的是主语、宾语、表语的话,这个词就是连接代词;如果作的是各种状语,就叫连接副词;如果不作任何成分,就叫连接词。如下表:连接词 that, if, whether引导名词性从句的连接词 连接代词 who, whom, what, whose, which, whichever, whatever, whoever连接副词 when, where, how, why第二节 考点分类解析【考点一:语序问题】名词性从句的语序问题一直断断续续地在各地高考题目中出现,由此可见其重要性。其实说来非常简单易记:永远陈述语气。即名词性从句中不会出现助动词提前的现象。如:Who he is doesn’t matter much.When and where we shall have the sports meet is a question.I don’t know what his name is.I don’t know what is wrong with him. = I don’t know what is the matter with him.You can’t imagine how excited I was at that time.Can you tell me what size shoes you wear?No one can be sure ______ in a million years. (MET1991)A. what will man look like B. what man will look likeC. man will look like what D. what look will man like答案:B。这个题就是典型的考查宾语从句的语序问题。根据以上所述,应该是陈述语序。所以A、C两个选项就不可能了。而D选项明显不符合我们的语言习惯。【考点二:that和what的区别问题】能引导名词性从句的关系代词有who, whom, what, whose, which, whichever, whatever, whoever八个。为何单独讲what的用法呢?重要!在考试中出现的频率高!在本书第一章《定语从句》中,我们提到过,what是不能引导定语从句的。定语从句中如果缺少的成分是主语、宾语、表语,我们选择的是关系代词that或其他。现在山头换了,到了名词性从句的知识范围了。What在名词性从句中就很有用武之地了。还是分析成分,what 在从句中作的主语、宾语、表语。而that只是一个“连接词”,既不作什么成分,也没有什么意义。如:What you did doesn’t agree with what you promised.What he couldn’t understand was why his teacher was never satisfied with him.The matter of salary is what I care most if I decide to change my profession.What we can’t get always seems better than what we have already got.I think that your composition is no better than his.That you don’t love her is not my business.What we have seen is different from _______.A. we heard B. we have heard C. what we heard D. what we have heard答案:D。我们应该可以看出这是个宾语从句。从句中hear是个及物动词,缺少宾语。所以,应该选有what引导的从句。而不能是that或者省略了that的情况。I couldn’t agree with ______ at the meeting.A. that you said B. which you said C. all what you said D. what you said答案:D。与上一题相同,这也是一个考查宾语从句的题目。从句中的say是个及物动词,缺少宾语。所以,应该选择what引导的宾语从句。但是,这个题目最容易错的选项是C。 因为有些同学会认为all是先行词,而后面时what引导的定语从句。但是,从上一章的讲解我们应该学会what是不引导定语从句的。所以,C根本就是不存在的。【考点三:that和whether的区别问题】有时候,它们两个比较难以区别,因为,它们都是连接词,都在从句中不作成分。但是,它们之间最大的区别在于“意义”。即that在从句中既不作成分,也没有自己的意义;而whether就不同了。它虽然不在从句中作什么成分,但是它又意义,即“是否”。这就能够左右从句的意思,使从句所表达的意思变成一个还没有确定的因素。如:I don’t know whether he can join us or not.I’m sure that he can join us.It is none of your business whether I love her.It is none of your business that I don’t love her.综上所述,区分that还是whether,重要一点就是看主句需要从句表达一个什么意思,是确定的,还是不确定的;是事实还是疑问。前者选that,后者选whether。如:I have no doubt _____ Mr. Johnson will make it here on time.A. that B. whether C. why D. when答案:A。这个题之所以选择that,就是因为前面的I have no doubt(毫无疑问),这样的主句已经不再需要从句表达什么“是否”了。No one can be sure _____ the board will accept our conditions.A. that B. whether C. why D. what答案:B。 这个题中的No one can be sure(没有人能肯定)就要求从句表达一个“董事会能否接受我们的条件”的意思,而不能是一个既定的事实。【考点四:if和whether的区别问题】二者在引导宾语从句时都有“是否”之意。但并不是永远可以互换。一般认为,二者可以互换的环境也只有在宾语从句中。如:He didn’t give us explicit reply whether/if he will attend our wedding ceremony.而在介词的宾语从句中,在主语从句中,在表语从句中,在同位语从句中,在和不定式搭配的结构中等等,习惯上只能用whether。如:1. _______ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. (1996)A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where答案:B。这是主语从句。2. The question of _______ they are old or young is not important.A. which B. whether C. how D. if答案:B。这是介词of的宾语从句。3. The question is ______ the film is worth seeing.A. if B. what C. whether D. how答案:C。这是表语从句。4. He doesn’t know ______ to stay or not.A. if B. when C. whether D. how答案:C。这里是和不定式搭配。5. The news _____ our team has won the match is unknown.A. which B. if C. whether D. then答案:C。这是同位语从句,解释说明news。值得注意的是:有些资料依然强调if不能与or not搭配的问题。过去有过这样的规定,只是在现代英语中,已经不再强调了而已。现在认为if… or not也可以接受。【考点五:wh-词和wh-ever的区别问题】一般认为,wh-词在引导从句时,依然保留了很大部分的疑问词的本色,所以,它们引导的从句在意思上应该表达的是一个“问题”,如:“谁?什么?何时?何地?为何?怎么?”等。而wh-ever已经没有这层色彩,不再关心这样的“问题”,而是充满了让步的意味,多有“无论...”之意。如:The police wanted to know who will benefit most from the old man’s death.警方想知道谁将从老人的去世中受益最多。Whoever will benefit from the old man’s death will be questioned by the police.能从老人的去世之中受益的所有人都将受到警方的盘问。Who will be sent to help the people in the flooded areas hasn’t been announced.谁将被派往洪灾区去救援还没有宣布。Whoever will be sent to work in the flooded areas will spare no effort to helpthe people in need. 不管是谁被派往灾区救援都会全力以赴地帮助灾民。【考点六:no matter wh-和wh-ever的区别问题】二者都有“无论...”之意。在引导让步状语从句时确实可以互换,没有什么区别。但是,no matter wh-只能引导状语从句,不能引导名词性从句。Wh-ever则二者兼收,来去自由。由此包含与被包含的关系决定,二者同时出现而必选其一时,答案肯定是wh-ever。如:Whoever breaks the rules will be punished. (主语从句)Whoever/ No matter who breaks the rules, he/she will be punished. (状语从句)Don’t believe whatever he tells you. (宾语从句)Don’t believe him, whatever/ no matter what he tells you. (状语从句)【考点七:名词性从句中的虚拟语气问题】先看宾语从句的虚拟语气。一般说来,如果从句作的是表示说话人某种观点、态度或要求等语气的动词的宾语时,从句中要求用should+动词原形的虚拟语气(should经常可以省略)。这些动词常见的有:desire, demand, require, request, order, propose, command, advise, suggest等。如:例:He insisted that she (should)spend more time studying.He demanded that we (should)be on time.The boss required that all waiters (should) keep standing all day long.The publishing house suggested that I (should) type my book out.有两个特例是高中老师不愿意错过的。那就是suggest和insist。它们俩后面的宾语从句是否用虚拟语气还要看具体语境来定。如:The doctor suggested that I had a cold。(这个suggest的意思是“解释,说明”。后面不用虚拟语气)The big smiles on her face suggested that she had passed the test.(这个suggest的意思是“表明”。后面不用虚拟语气)The doctor suggested that I (should) stay in bed for a few day.(这个suggest的意思是“建议”。后面用虚拟语气)The young man insisted that he was well enough to serve in the army.(这个insist坚持的是一个事实不是一种观点。后面不用虚拟语气)That young man insisted that he should be sent to the front.(这个insist坚持的是一种观点,即“他应该被派往前线”。后面用虚拟语气)以上是宾语从句中的虚拟语气现象。如果是其他三种名词性从句,只要和上述动词有关,也享受同样的待遇。如:The headquarters’ suggestion is that we (should) wait for another few days. (表语从句)His order that all the soldiers (should) swim across the river was refused. (同位语从句)It is strongly recommended that you (should) take a taxi. (主语从句)另外,在下面这几个特殊的句型中,后面的主语从句也用虚拟语气。a. It is important/ necessary/ natural/ a wonder/ essential(必要的)/suggested that…should do… 如:It is important that you (should)be on time.It is necessary that you (should) exercise regularly.b. I wish that … did…. 如:I wish I were a bird.I wish one day I could live on the moon.c. I’d rather that… did… 如:I’d rather you did it yourself.I’d rather I hadn’t lent you that bicycle yesterday.【考点八:宾语从句的反意疑问句的问题】众所周知,反意疑问句是由句子的谓语和主语的代词形式共同构成。如:He is ignorant, isn’t he?He isn’t strong, is he?但是,如果前面的句子中含有宾语从句,怎么办?答案是一定针对主句的主语、谓语。如:You know he is ignorant, don’t you?I told you he isn’t strong, didn’t I?有一种例外,当主句的主语是I,且谓语动词是表示观点的动词如think, believe, suppose, expect, am afraid等时,就只能针对从句反问了。因为没有人会对自己的观点吗上进行反诘。如:I think he is ignorant, isn’t he?I believe he isn’t strong, is he?【考点九:it在名词性从句中的作用问题】代词it的用法有很多。但近几年的高考关注的却比较集中,即it作为普通回指代词的用法和在名词性从句中作形式宾语和形式主语的用法。如:作形式主语:It worried me a bit that he didn’t phone.It occurred to me that she might have forgotten the date.It doesn’t matter when you arrive--- just come when you can.It wasn’t clear to anyone why he didn’t come.It was surprising how many unhappy marriages there are.作形式宾语:I made it clear that I was determined to carry out the plan.I find it necessary that we should spend more time practising spoken English.I think it important that we should keep calm.Don’t take it for granted that your parents should do everything for you.He doesn’t want it to be known that he’s going away.You may depend upon it that all the goods will be delivered in time.【考点十:主语从句和强调句型的混淆问题】从表面上看,it作形式主语的主语从句有时候和强调句型有些相似。如:It is impossible that we can persuade him to join us. (主语从句)It is with Tom’s help that we were able to persuade him to join us. (强调句型)其实,强调句型其实很简单,即在It is/was 与that之间放上我们想要强调的某个句子成分。大部分考题都是考查that的选择问题。即考查考生判断某句是否是强调句型的问题。这个看似容易的问题在出题人的多种变化之下有时也会变得很令人头疼。下面是几种常见的出题形式:1.基本式:It was on the top of the mountain that we met the foreign tourist.2. 一般疑问句式:Was it on the top of the mountain that you met the foreign tourist?3. 特殊疑问句式:Where was it that you met the foreign tourist?4.复合句式:Can you tell me where it was that you met the foreign tourist?5.套定语从句式:It was in the house which was built by his father that he was born.6. 套定语从句加省略式:--- Where did you meet the foreign tourist?--- It was in the hotel where we lived (that we met the foreign tourist).判断一个句子是否是强调句型是个关键。这里重要思路是当去掉强调句型、各个成分各归其位以后,该句子是否还成立。下面几个例子就不是强调句型:It was not yet seven o’clock when he came back last night.因为,*He came back last night not yet seven o’clock.就不是个正确的句子。--- I heard that Tom was once almost drowned. When was that?--- It was in 2000 when he was swimming in a pool.同理,*He was swimming in a pool in 2000. 从逻辑上看也不成立。因为,我们不可能一整年都在游泳。第三节 巩固练习(一)、【夯实基础】1. America was ________ was called “India” by Columbus.A. that B. where C. what D. the place2. --- I’d like to invite you to a concert this evening.--- Thank you, but ______ I’ll be free I’m not sure at the moment.A. while B. if C. when D. whether3. I kept looking at the man, wondering ______________.A. whether I have seen him before B. where I had seen him beforeC. that I had seen him before D. when I had seen him before4. You have not yet answered my question ________ I can join in the party tonight.A. whether B. if C. which D. that5. Information has been put forward _______ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.A. while B. that C. when D. as6. A computer can only do _______ you have instructed it to do.A. how B. after C. what D. when7. It is a common belief _______ teenagers today know about computers and are familiar ______ using them in all aspects of life.A. that; out B. what; with C. that; with D. what; about8. Don’t leave for tomorrow _______ you can do today.A. if B. what C. that D. unless9. Was it because it rained yesterday ______ he didn’t come?A. why B. when C. then D. that10. ______ all the inventions have in common is ______ they have succeeded.A. What; what B. That; that C. What; that D. That; that11. --- What clothes should we wear to attend the ball?--- Dress _______ you like.A. what B. however C. whatever D. how12. ________ has ridden on a railway train knows how _____ another train flashes by when it is traveling in the opposite direction.A. Anyone who; rapid B. Whoever; rapidly C. Anything; rapid D. Whatever; rapidly13. We believe _______ you have devoted yourself ________ sure to come true.A. that; is B. all that; to be C. that all; are D. what; to is14. You may give the film ticket to _______ you think needs it.A. no matter who B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter whom15. Was it in 1998, when he was still at middle school, ______ this boy became expert at computer?A. which B. where C. when D. that16. It was ______ he came to Macao ______ he knew what kind of place it was.A. that; when B. until; that C. not until; when D. not until; that17. All finished, we sat down to enjoy ______ we thought the most delicious dinner.A. that B. which C. what D. it18. It was not until he explained it a second time _______ it.A. when we understood B. that we understoodC. did we understand D. that did we understand19. The Beaches held _____ they called “family day” once each year.A. that B. which C. what D. when20. --- How did he fail the examination?--- It was because he was too careless _______ he made so many mistakes.A. therefore B. that C. so that D. so21. In some countries, ______ is called “equality” does not really mean equal rights fro all people.A. that B. what C. which D. how22. --- ______ helps others will be helped.--- So I’ll be thankful to and try to help _______ has helped us.A. Whoever; whomever B. Whoever; whoeverC. Who; whoever D. Who; whomever23. Whether ways will be found to stop pollution or not is just _______ worries the public.A. why B. which C. that D. what24. It was not until dark _______ he found ________ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.A. that; what B. that; that C. when; what D. when; that25. The question came up at the meeting _______ we had enough money for our research.A. that B. what C. which D. whether26. _______ she was invited to the ball made her very happy.A. If B. That C. When D. Because27. ______ we are doing has never been done before.A. That B. What C. Which D. Whether28. Scientists believe native Americans arrived by crossing the land bridge that connected Siberia and _______ more than 10,000 years ago.A. this is Alaska B. Alaska is now C. is now Alaska D. what is now Alaska29. Please tell me ______ you would like to have your coffee ---- black or white?A. what B. where C. which D. how30. Many workers were organized to clear away _______ remained of the World Trade center.A. those B. that C. what D. where(二)、【真题实战之2007】1. ____ matters most in learning English is enough practice. (全国II)A. What B. Why C. Where D. Which2. Choosing the right dictionary depends on ______ you want to use it for. (江苏卷)A. what B. why C. how D. whether3.It is none of your business other people think about you. Believe yourself.(福建卷)A. how B. what C. which D. when4. parents say and do has a life-long effect on their children. (陕西卷)A. That B. Which C. What D. As5. Why not try your luck downtown, Bob? That’s ______ the best jobs are. (浙江卷)A. where B. what C. when D. why6. The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer. Warm sunshine and soft sands make ________ it is. (天津卷)A. what B. which C. how D. where7. Could I speak to ________ is in charge of International Sales, please? (山东卷)A.anyone B.someone C.whoever D.no matter who8. ______ he referred to in his article was unknown to the general reader.A. That B. What C. Whether D. Where9. The traditional view is ______ we sleep because our brain is “programmed” to make us do so.A. when B. why C. whether D. that(三)、【真题实战之2006】1. We haven’t settled the question of ______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. (江苏卷)A. if B. where C. whether D. that2. See the flags on top of the building? That was______ we did this morning. (全国I)A. when B. which C. where D. what3. Please remind me______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. (同上)A. where B. when C. how D. what4. –What did your parents think about your decision?–They always let me do _______ I think I should. (全国III)A. when B. that C. how D. what5. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased ________he was a man of action. (湖南卷)A. which B. that C. what D. whether6. Nobody believed his reason for being absent form the class________ he had to meet his uncle at the air port. (重庆卷)A. why B. that   C. where D. because7. --- Could you do me a favour?--- It depends on ______ it is. (北京卷)A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever8. Engines are to machines ____ hearts are to animals. (山东卷)A. as B. that C. what D. which9. ____ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. (山东卷)A. No matter what B. No matter which C Whatever D. Whichever10. _______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. (浙江卷)A. As B. That C. This D. It11. — It's thirty years since we lest met.— But I still remember the story, believe it or not, ____we got lost on a rainy night. (四川卷)A. which B. that C. what D. when12. A warm thought suddenly came to me I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. (安徽卷)A.if B.whenC.that D.which13. makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. (辽宁卷)A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever14. There is much chance Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race.A. that B. which C. until D. if (天津卷)15. These shoes look very good. I wonder _____. (上海卷)A. how much cost they are B. how much do they costC. how much they cost D. how much are they cost16. Doris' success lies in the fact ___ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. (同上)A. which B. that C. when D. why17. As the busiest woman in Norton, she made _________her duty to look after all the other people’s affairs in that town. (湖南卷)A. this B. that C. one D. it18. I’d appreciate ____ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. (山东卷)A. that B. it C. this D. you19. If I can help_______, I don't like working late into the night. (全国I )A. so B. that C. it D. them(四)、【真题实战之2005】1. Mary wrote an article on ______ the team had failed to win the game. (全国I)A. why B. what C. who D. that2. As soon as he comes back, I will tell him when _____ and see him. (北京卷)A. you will come B. will you come C. you come D. do you come3. _______ in the regulations that you should not tell other people the password of your e-mail account. (上海卷)A. What is required B. What requiresC. It is required D. It requires4. The old lady’s hand shook frequently. She explained to her doctor ____ this shaking had begun half a year before, and _____, only because of this, she had been forced to give up her job. (重庆卷)A. when; how B. how; when C. how; how D. why; why5. I was surprised by her words, which made me recognize ____ silly mistakes I had made.A. what B. that C. how D. which (湖南卷)6. He hasn’t slept at all for three days. ______ he is tired out. (湖北卷)A. There is no point B. There is no needC. It is no wonder D. It is no way7. Danby left word with my secretary ____ he would call again in the afternoon. (浙江卷)A. who B. that C. as D. which8. Do you have any idea ______ is going on in the classroom? (辽宁卷)A. that B. what C. as D. which9. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ______ he thought was not enough. (山东卷)A. where B. how C. what D. which10. The way he did it was different ______ we were used to. (江西卷)A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which11. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt _____ a cure for AIDS will be found.A. which B. what C. that D. whether (广东卷)12. --- Don’t you think it necessary that he _______ to Miami but to New York? (江苏卷)--- I agree, but the problem is ______ he has refused to.A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; thatC. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what(五)、【真题实战之2004】1. The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at ____ I thought was a dangerous speed. (上海春招)A. as B. which C. what D. that2. Along with the letter was his promise ______ he would visit me this coming Christmas.A. which B. that C. what D. whether3. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is _____ I disagree. (全国I)A. why B. where C. what D. how4. We cannot figure out ______ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out.A. that B. as C. why D. when (北京卷)5. A modern city has been set up in ______ was a wasteland ten years ago. (天津卷)A. what B. which C. that D. where6. After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth, ____ our astronauts desire to do is walk in space. (上海卷)A. where B. what C. that D. how7. A story goes ______ Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. (上海卷)A. when B. where C. what D. that8. I think Father would like to know ______ I’ve been up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note. (湖南卷)A. which B. why C. what D. how(六)、【真题实战之2003】1. --- Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game?--- Oh, that’s ________. (北京春招)A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited aboutC. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited2. People have heard what the President has said; they are waiting to see ____ he will do.A. how B. what C. when D. that (北京春招)3. There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars ____ road conditions need ______. (上海卷)A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improvedC. where; improving D. when; improving4. It is pretty well understood _____ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. (上海卷)A. that B. when C. what D. how参考答案【夯实基础】1-5 CDBAB 6-10 CCBDC 11-15 BBDCD 16-20 DCBCB 21-25 BBDAD26-30 BBDDC【真题实战2007】 1-5 AABCA 6-9 ACBD【真题实战2006】1-5 CDBDB 6-10 BCCDD 11-15 BCAAC 16-19 BDBC【真题实战2005】 1-5 AACCA 6-10 CBBCC 11-12 CB【真题实战2004】 1-5 CBBCA 6-8 BDC【真题实战2003】 1-4 ABAC 来自: shonajun >《我的图书馆》转藏到我的图书馆 献花(0)分享到:类似文章高考英语名词性从句讲解名词性从句及习题高中英语名词性从句总复习名词性从句GRAMMAR ―――...英语语法之名词性从句更多类似文章 >>

范文8:词性从句【以文搜文】

    名词性从句的三个基本要素

    要素一:引导词

    也就是引导名词性从句的关联词。这些引导词可分为三类,一是that类,二是if / whether类,三是疑问词类。既然是引导词,所以这些词就总是位于名词性从句的最前面。

    要素二:语序

    名词性从句都必须与陈述句语序相同,即“主语+谓语”。事实上,任何一种从句,其语序都必须与陈述句的语序相同。

    要素三:时态

    若主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时,宾语从句的谓语动词可根据情况使用各种时态;若主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,宾语从句若不是一个客观事实或真理,其谓语动词也必须用某种过去时态。

    whatever与no matter what

    It is generally considered unwise to give a child __________ her or she wants.

    A. whatever B. no matter what C. whenever D. no matter when

    此题应选 A。容易误选B。选项C、D显然是错的,因为句中的 wants 缺宾语,而C、D两项不能作宾语。至于C、D 的区别,可这样描述:no matter what 只能引导状语从句,而不引导名词性从句。而 whatever 既可引导名词性从句(=anything that),也可引导状语从句(=no matter what):

    1. 引导名词性从句(只用whatever):

    无论他做什么都是对的。

    正:Whatever he did was right.

    误:No matter what he did was right.

    无论他说什么似乎都有道理。

    正:Whatever he says sounds reasonable.

    误:No matter what he says sounds reasonable.

    山羊找到什么就吃什么。

    正:Goats eat whatever they find.

    误:Goats eat no matter what they find.

    2. 引导状语从句(两者可换用):

    无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。

    正:Whatever you say,I won’t believe you.

    正:No matter what you say,I won’t believe you.

    无论发生什么,都要保持镇定。

    正:Keep calm,whatever happens.

    正:Keep calm,no matter what happens.

    引导宾语从句that的省略问题

    ■名词从句作动词宾语时,前面的that常被省略,特别是在非正式语体中:

    I suggested (that) they should drive along the coast. 我建议他们沿着海岸开车。

    I hoped (that) I would / should succeed. 我曾希望我会成功。

    I know (that) he will be in time. 我知道他会赶得上的。

    I knew (that) he would be in time. 我当时知道他会赶得上的。

    He thinks (that) they will give him a visa. 他想他们会给他签证。

    He thought (that) they would give him 3 visas. 他本想他们会给他签证。

    I expect (that) the plane will he diverted. 我料想飞机会改变航线。

    I expected (that) the plane would be diverted. 我本料想飞机会改变航线。

    ■在某些动词 (如answer, imply) 之后则一般需要用that。如:

    He answered that he was from Austria. 他说他是奥地利人。

    She answered that she preferred to eat alone. 她回答说她愿意独自吃。

    I don’t wish to imply that you are wrong. 我无意暗示你错了。

    The newspapers have implied that they are having an affair. 报纸报道暗指他们有染。

    ■在较长的句子里,特别在“that从句”与动词隔开时,that一般不可省略。如:

    The dealer told me how much he was prepared to pay for my car and that f could have the money without delay. 那个商人告诉我他准备出多少钱买我的汽车,并说我会立即收到款。

    这个that if是什么意思

    这道题中的 that if 是什么意思?

    She promised _________ he had enough money she would marry him.

    A. that B. if C. that if D. if that

    【分析】此题应选 C,其余几项均有可能误选。句子的正常词序为 She promised that she would marry him if he had enough money. 由于将条件状语从句 if he had enough money 插入动词 promised 与其宾语从句之间,从而导致许多同学误选。顺便说一句,本来动词 promise 后接宾语从句时,引导宾语从句的 that 是可以省略的,但是按英语习惯,当动词与其宾语从句之间插有其他成分时,引导宾语从句的 that 通常不宜省略,所以此题不宜选B。又如:

    She promised that if anyone found her son she would give him a lot of money. 她答应要是谁找到她儿子,她会给他一大笔钱。(句子可改为 She promised that she would give him a lot of money if anyone found her son.)

    He said that when his wife came back he would leave. 他说等他妻子一回来,他就离开。(句子可改写为 He said that he would leave when his wife came back.)

    Tell him that if he is at home I’ll come to see him. 告诉他,如果他在家,我就去看他。(句子可改写为 Tell him (that) I’ll come to see him if he is at home.)

    这两道题考查名词性从句吗

    第1题

    Don’t you know, my dear friend, _________ it is you that she loves?

    A. who B. which C. that D. what

    【分析】此题容易误选 A或B,选 A 者认为这是指人的,故用 who;选B者认为这是非限制性定语从句,两者都是误认为这是定语从句(注意没有先行词),其实此题应选C,它引导的是一个宾语从句,只是被其中的插入语 my dear friend 隔开罢了。其实此句也可说成 My dear friend, don’t you know that it is you that she loves? 又如:

    I think, though I could be mistaken, _________ he liked me.

    A. who B. which C. that D. what

    答案选 C,句子可改写为 I think that he liked me, though I could be mistaken. 即 that he liked me 是动词 think之宾语。

    第2题

    He told me the news, believe it or not, _________ he had earned $1 000 in a single day.

    A. that B. which C. as D. because

    【分析】此题容易误选 B,误认为这是非限制性定语从句。其实此题应选 A,that 引导的是一个用以修饰名词 the news 的同位语从句。不少同学之所以误选B,正是 believe it or not(信不信由你)这个插入成分惹的祸。

    这道题是考查主语从句吗?

    这道题是考查主语从句吗?要看仔细定噢!

    _________ with the right knowledge can give first aid.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    【分析】此题容易误选B,主要受以下这类句子的影响而形成思维定势:

    Whoever says that is lying. 谁那样说,谁就是在说谎。

    Whoever breaks this law deserves a fine. 违反本法者应予以罚款。

    Whoever comes first can get a ticket free. 谁先来谁就可以免费得到一张票。

    以上各例中的 whoever 引导的均为主语从句,它们均可换成 anyone who,但不能换成 anyone。上面的试题从表面上看,与以上各例很相似,其实有本质的不同,即 _________ with the right knowledge 中没有谓语动词,所以我们不能选 whoever。此题的正确答案为C,anyone 为句子主语,with the right knowledge 为修饰 anyone 的定语。请做以下试题:

    (1) _________ with a good education can apply for the job.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    (2) _________ has a good education can apply for the job.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    (3) _________ having a good education can apply for the job.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    (4) _________ seen smoking here will be fined.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    (5) _________ is seen smoking here will be fined.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    (6) _________ smoking here will be fined.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    (7) _________ smokes here will be fined.

    A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever

    第(1)题选C,介词短语with a good education 为修饰 anyone 的定语;

    第(2)题选B,whoever has a good education 为主语从句;

    第(3)题选C,现在分词短语having a good education 为修饰 anyone 的定语;

    第(4)题选C,过去分词短语seen smoking here 为修饰 anyone 的定语(可视为 anyone who is seen smoking here 之省略);

    第(5)题选B,whoever is seen smoking here 为主语从句(from www.yygrammar.com);

    第(6)题选C,现在分词短语smoking here 为修饰anyone 的定语;

    第(7)题B,whoever smokes here 为主语从句。

    that与whether (if)引导名词性从句的区别

    两者均可引导宾语从句,也可引导语从句和表语从句(if 通常不行),但两者含义不同,whether (if) 表示“是否”,that 却不表示任何含义。在它们所引出的从句中,that 表示一种肯定、明确的概念,而 whether (if) 则表示一种不肯定、不明确的概念。比较:

    Whether he’ll come is not known yet. 他是否来还不清楚。

    That he’ll come is known to us all. 我们都知道他会来。

    类似地,动词doubt (怀疑)后接宾语从句时,由于 doubt的含义不确定,故通常用 whether (if) 来引导其宾语从句,但若 doubt为否定式,则其后的宾语从句用 that 来引导。如:

    I doubt if you are honest. 我怀疑你是否诚实。

    I don’t doubt that you are honest. 我不怀疑你是诚实的。

    that, why 与 because 引导表语从句时的区别

    虽然三者均可引导表语从句,但 that 没有词义,而 why 和 because 有自己的意思;另外,虽然 why和 because 都可引导表语从句,但前者强调结果,后者强调原因。如:

    The reason was that you don’t trust her. 原因是你不信任她。

    The fact is that they are angry with each other. 事实是他们生彼此的气。

    He was ill. That’s why he was sent to the hospital. 他病了,所以被送到医院来。

    He was sent to the hospital. That’s because he was ill. 他被送到医院,是因为他生病了。

    whether 和if引导名词性从句的区别

    两者均可用于及物动词后引导宾语从句,表示“是否”,常可互换。但除此(用于动词后引导宾语从句)之外,在其他情况下表示“是否”时,通常要用 whether 而不用 if,如用于引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、让步状语从句、与or连用分别引导两个分句等,或用于不定式前、用于介词后、直接与 or not 连用等等。如:

    Ask him whether [if] he can come. 问他能不能来。

    The question is whether he can do it. 问题是他能不能做。

    Answer my question whether you can help him. 回答我你是否能帮助他。

    It depends on whether the letter arrives in time. 这取决于信是否来得及时。

    注:在某些动词后(如 discuss 等) 通常只用 whether。如:

    We discussed whether we should hold a meeting. 我们讨论了是否要开一个会。

    that与what引导名词性从句的区别

    that引导名词性从句只起连接作用,在从句中不作任何成分,无意义,在宾语从句通常省略,但在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中均不能省略;what除引导从句外,还在从句中作成分,意为“所……的(东西)”,在含义上等于“名词+that”。如:

    1. 用that的例子

    That she lacks experience is obvious. 她缺少经验,这是显然的。

    The police learned that he wasn’t there at that time. 警察获知他那时不在场。

    He realized that she too was exhausted. 他意识到她也精疲力尽。

    My idea is that you shouldn’t have left the country. 我的意见是你不应该离开那个国家。

    Bob has the mistaken idea that tomorrow is a holiday. 鲍勃错误地认为明天是一个假日。

    It was quite plain that he didn’t want to come. 很明显他不想来。

    It is natural that they should have different views. 他们看法不同是很自然的。

    2. 用what的例子

    What (=the thing that) he said was true. 他所讲的是事实。

    What he had hoped at last came true. 他希望的事终于成为现实。

    What he said is beneath contempt. 他说的话不值一理。

    What he says is true, possibly. 或许他说的是对的。

    What she saw gave her a fright. 她看到的情况吓了她一跳。

    What I want to say is this. 我想说的是这一点。

    I’m sorry for what I said. 我为我说的话表示歉意。

    That’s what I want to know. 这是我想知道的。

    You had better hear what I have to say. 你最好听听我的意见。

    I managed to get what I wanted. 我设法得到了我要的东西。

    It was what he meant rather than what he said. 这是他的原意而不是他的原话。

    There’s something in what he says. 他的话有些道理。

    Her interest was roused by what he said. 他的话引起了她的兴趣。

    He was always conscious of the fact that she did not approve of what he was doing. 他一向清楚她不太赞成他的做法。

    注:that 可引导同位语从句,what不能。如:

    Have you any idea what time it starts? 你知道什么时候开始吗?

    学习名词性从句的应注意的关键点

    1. 备考主语从句应注意以下三点

    一是从句作主语,主句谓语动词用第三人称单数;

    二是主语从句通常用it作形式主语,尤其是在It is +名词 / 形容词 / 过去分词+that…中,或在It seems / happens that…中,或疑问句中;

    三要注意由what, whatever, whoever引导的主语从句一般不用形式主语。

    2. 备考宾语从句应注意以下四点

    一是介词后(except等除外)一般不跟that引导的宾语从句,但可接疑问词引导的宾语从句;

    二是在that引导的宾语从句后若还有补语时,要用it作形式宾语,而将that从句置于补语之后;

    三是当主句谓语动词是think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine等时,若宾语从句要表示否定意义,往往要通过否主句来实现,即所谓否定转移;

    四是虽然引导宾语从句的that有时可以省略,但若宾语从句前有插入语或有间接宾语时,that不能省略;that在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后或者在“形式宾语it+宾补”之后时也不能省略;that从句单独回答问题时,that也不能省略。

    3. 备考表语从句应注意以下三点

    一是除that, whether和疑问词外,as, as if, as though, because也可引导表语从句;

    二要注意“that’s why+结果”以及“that’s because+原因”的区别;

    三是注意the reason (why / for…) Is that…句式。?

    4. 备考同位语从句应注意以下三点

    一是同位语从句多在news, order, word (=news / order), idea, hope, suggestion, information, plan, thought, doubt, fear, belief等抽象名词后,说明其具体内容;

    二是同位语从句与所说明的名词有时会被谓语所分开,做题时需注意;

    三是引导同位语从句的有that, whether和连接副词when, where, why, how等,但绝大多数由that引导,注意同位语从句不能用which引导。

    英语基础语法——名词性从句

    一、名词性从句的基本概念

    在复合句中起名词作用的从句叫名词性从句,包括作主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句。

    (1)主语从句

    就是在复合句中作主语的从句。主语从句常用that, whether, who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, how, why, whatever, whoever等引导。如:

    Whether he will be able to come remains a question. 他是否来还是问题。

    That China is a great socialist country is well known. 众所周知,中国是一个伟大的社会主义国家。

    注:为避免头重脚轻,使句子平衡,常用it作形式主语,而将主语从句后置。如上述第二例常说成:

    It is well known that China is a great socialist country.

    但是,由连接代词what, whatever, whoever等引导的主语从句一般不能用形式主语。如:

    What he found surprised me greatly. 他的发现使我非常吃惊。

    Whoever is finished may rest. 凡是做完工的人都可以休息。

    (2)表语从句

    就是在连系动词之后作表语的从句。引导表语从句的连接除与引导主语从句的连接词外,还有as if, as though。如:

    The question is whether he is able to do it alone. 问题是他能否单独做这件事。

    It looks as if (though) it is going to snow. 天好像要下雪似的。

    注意:要区分以下句式:

    1. that’s why+结果;that’s because+原因。2. The reason why /for…is that…

    He is absent. That’s because he is ill. 他缺席,这是因为他生病了。

    He is ill. That’s why he is absent. 他病了,这就是他缺席的原因。

    The reason why he is absent is that he is ill. 他缺席的原因是他生病了。

    (3)宾语从句

    就是在复合句中作宾语的从句。引导这宾语从句的连接词与引导主语从句的连接词基本相同。如:

    They didn’t say which they wanted. 他们没有说他们想要哪一个。

    I am sure (that) no harm will ever come to you. 我肯定你永远不会受伤害。

    I was surprised at what has happened.我对发生的事感到惊讶。

    注意:当think, believe, suppose等的疑问式后面跟连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句时,习惯上将这些连接词置于句首,即“连接代/副词+do you think /believe /expect+宾语从句的其余部分?”如:

    Who do you think is the best player this year? 你认为今年谁是最佳运动员?

    What do you suppose you will do after school? 你想放学后干什么?

    (4)同位语从句

    就是在句中作同位语的从句。它通常有放在thought, idea, news, word(=news), plan, doubt, question, fact, suggestion, belief等抽象名词的后面,说明这些词的具体内容或含义。同位语从句大多由that引导,也可由whether, how, when, where, why等引导,但不能由which引导。如:

    The idea that the earth is round is not a new one. “地球是圆的”这种观点并不新鲜。

    He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这们一问题。

    I have no idea when he will set out. 我不知他什么时候出发。

    注:有时,同位语从句并不紧跟在它所说明的词的后面。如:

    The whole truth came out at last that he was a wolf in sheep’s clothing. 真相终于大白了,他原来是一只披羊皮的狼。

    二、名词性从句的基本要素

    A. 连接词

    就是引导名词性从句的关连接词。共有四类:

    1. 连词that:只起连接作用,没有任何意思,不作任何句子成分,在宾语从句中可省略。

    2. 连词whether:有“是否”之意,但不作句子成分;引导宾语从句时,还可用if。

    3. 连接代词:who(m), whose, which, what等均有各自的意义,在从句中作主语、宾语、定语等。

    4. 连接副词:when, where, why, how等,有意义,在从句中作状语。

    5. whoever, whatever, whichever等也可引导名词性从句,意为“无论/不管……”。

    注意:连接词必须位于从句的最前面。

    关于连接词的用法,请参见后文。

    B. 语序

    必须与陈述句语序相同:主语+谓语动词。如:

    译:我不知道他去哪里了。

    误:I don’t know where has she gone.

    正:I don’t know where she has gone.

    C. 时态一致

    若主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时,宾语从句的谓语动词可根据情况使用各种时态;若主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,其谓语动词必须用某种过去时态。如:

    She said that his father had gone to Beijing. 他说他父亲去北京了。(had不能用has)

    注:宾语从句是一个客观真理时,可以不一致。如:

    She told me that the earth goes around the sun. 他告诉我地球围绕太阳旋转。

    八种宾语从句不省略that

    引导宾语从句的that在下列情况下一般不省略:

    1. 宾语从句前有插入语。如:

    We hope, on the contrary, that he will stay at home with us. 恰恰相反,我们希望他和我们呆在家里。

    2. 有间接宾语时。如:

    He told me that he was leaving for Japan. 他告诉我他要去日本。

    3. that在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后。如:

    He said (that) the book was very interesting and that(不省略) all the children like to read it.他说那本书很有趣,所有小孩都喜欢读。

    4. 在“it(形式宾语)+补语”之后时。如:

    I think it necessary that he should stay here. 我们认为他有必要留在这里。

    5. that从句单独回答问题时。如:

    —What did he hear? 他听说了什么事?

    —That Kate had passed the exam. (他听说)凯特考试及格了。

    6. 在except等介词后。如:

    He has no special fault except that he smokes too much.他除了抽烟太多之外,没有什么特别的毛病。

    7. 位于句首时。如:

    That our team will win, I believe. 我相信我们队会赢。

    8. 在较为正式或不常用的动词(如reply, object)后。如:

    He replied that he disagreed. 他回答说他不同意。

    宾语从句学习指要

    用来充作宾语的句子叫做宾语从句。如:

    He asked what you were doing last night. 他问你昨天夜晚在干什么。

    I didn’t know that he was wounded in the accident. 我原来不知道他在那事故中受了伤。

    Can you explain why he didn’t come to the party last Sunday? 你能解释上周星期日他为什么没有来参加聚会吗?

    在宾语从句中须注意:

    1. that 在口语中常被省略,但在正式的文体中,不能省;并且它一般不能引导介词的宾语从句,但可引导except, but, in 等少数介词的宾语从句。如:

    I didn’t know (that) he was Li Lei. 我不知道他就是李蕾。

    I will do anything I can to help you except that I’m ill. 只要我身体舒服,我愿做任何事情来帮助你。

    2. 宾语从句之后带有补足语成分时,一般须用it作形式宾语,把宾语从句放到句末,此时的that不能省。如:

    The boy has made it clear that they can’t play with his toys. 那个男孩已清楚的表明他们不能玩弄他的玩具。

    3. 动词advise, ask, demand, desire, insist(坚决主张), order, propose, request, suggest(建议)等代的宾语从句须用虚拟语气,即:(should) do的形式。

    He asked that we (should) get there before nine o’clock. 他要求我们在九点钟之前赶到那儿。

    The teacher advised us that we (should) not waste our time. 老师劝告我们不要浪费时间了。

    4. 宾语从句的时态与主句的时态须呼应。即(from www.yygrammar.com):

    1)当主句谓语动词的时态是现在时或将来时,从句的谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态表示。如:

    He always says that he is our good friend. 他总是说他是我们的好朋友。

    When the teacher knows what we have done, he will say that we have done a good deed. 当老师知道我们所干的事情时,他会说我们做了一件好事。

    2)当主句谓语动词的时态为过去时,从句的谓语动词须用响应的过去时。如:

    He didn’t tell us he came from Shanghai. 他没有告诉我们他来自上海。

    He said he had read the book. 他说他读过这本书。

    3)但当从句的内容是客观真理或客观事实,而不受时间的限制时,即使主句谓语动词为过去时,从句仍用一般现在时。如(from www.yygrammar.com):

    Chairman Mao said that all the imperialists are paper tigers. 毛主席说一切帝国主义者都是纸老虎。

    When we were children, we were told that China is in the east of the world. 我们还是小孩子的时候,人们就告诉我们说中国在世界的东方。

    同位语从句学习指要

    当名词后面所接的从句表示与名词同位并为名词的实际内容时,这个从句就是同位语从句。如:

    The news that China has joined the WTO excites us all. 中国加入了世界贸易组织这一消息使我们大家兴奋不已。

    He told us the truth that he fell down from his bike this afternoon. 他告诉了我们他从单车上摔下来这一真相。

    同位语中应注意:

    1. 高中所学能带同位语从句的名词不多,常见的有:answer, belief, conclusion, decision, discovery, doubt, explanation, fact, hope, idea, information, knowledge, law, message, news, opinion, order, possibility, problem, promise, proof, proposal, question, report, risk, rumor, story, suggestion, truth, theory, thought, wish, word等。如:

    HW sent us a message that he won’t come next week. 他送信来告诉我们说,下周他不来了。

    There is no doubt that he is fit for this job. 毫无疑问,它适合这一工作。

    2. 表示“命令、建议、要求” advice, demand, decision, desire, idea, insistence, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish 等名词的同位语,须用虚拟语气。如(from www.yygrammar.com):

    He made clear his desire that he should work hard to go to college. 他已清楚的表明了他要努力学习考上大学这一愿望。

    Soon came the order that all the people should obey the rules. 不久命令下来了,所有的人不得违犯制度。

    3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别:

    同位语从句与定语从句形相似而实质不同,具体表现在以下几个方面:

    (1)被修饰的词不同。同位语从句的前面一般是数量有限的、表示抽象意义的名词;而定语从句的先行词是无数的指人或物名词。

    (2)从句的作用不同。同位语从句表示同位名词的具体内容;而定语从句是对先行词—名词的限制、描绘或说明。

    (3)引导词的作用不同。引导同位语从句的that是连词,在从句中不担任任何成分,但不能省略;而引导定语从句的that为关系代词,在从句中担任句子的某种成分,当担任定语从句中的宾语时,that可以省略。

    (4)引导词不同。定语从句不能用what, how, whether引导;而同位从句可以用what, how, whether引导(from www.yygrammar.com)。

    (5)判定定语从句和同位语从句的方法。同位语从句可充当同位名词的表语;而定语从句不能充当先行词的表语。

    表语从句学习指要

    当一个子句充当句子的表语时,这个子句就叫做表语从句。如:

    My idea is that he can teach children English in this school. 我的想法是他能够在这所学校教孩子们英语。

    My hope is that he will keep it a secret for ever. 我的希望是它将永远保守秘密。

    表语从句中应注意:

    1. 连接词that一般不能省略,但当主句中含动词do的某种形式时,that可以省略。如:

    What I want to do is (that) I can go up to him and thank him. 我想做的事是走到身边去感谢他。

    2. 当句子的主语是:advice, demand, decision, desire, idea, insistence, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish等名词时,表语从句须用虚拟语气,即:should +do。如:

    My advice is that you should go to apologize to him. 我的建议是你应该去向他道歉。

    主语从句学习指要

    用来作主语的句子叫做主语从句。如:

    (1)When he was born is unknown. 他生于何时还不知道。

    (2)What he did last night is being investigated. 他昨天晚上干了些什么正在调查之中。

    在主语从句中须注意:

    1. 主语从句一般用it作形式主语,放在句首,而将主语从句放到句末。如:

    (1)It is possible that he has stolen the car. 很可能他偷了小车。

    (2)Isn’t it strange that he should not have passed the test? 他测试没有通过,难道不奇怪吗?

    2. if引导主语从句时,只能用it作形式主语,放在句首,而将if引导的主语从句放到句末。如:

    It is uncertain if he will leave for Beijing tomorrow. 明天他是否去北京还不敢肯定。

    3. that引导主语从句放在句首时,that不可省,但在句末口语中可省。如:

    That he was ill yesterday is known now. 大家都已知道他昨天生了病。

    4. 连接代词引导主语从句只能放在句首。如;

    (1)Who has broken the glass is unknown. 谁打破了玻璃现在还不知道。

    (2)What he wants is all here. 他所要的东西都在这里。

    5. 主语从句中主句的谓语动词一般用第三人称单数形式,但what引导主语从句的主句谓语动词的形式须根据句子的意思来判断。如(from www.yygrammar.com):

    (1)How he worked it out is still a secret. 他是如何把它做出来的还是一个秘密

    (2)What they make in this factory are TV sets. 他们在工厂里所做的东西就是电视机。

    使用名词性从句的两个注意点

    注意1 语序问题

    不管什么词引导,从句的语序始终用陈述语序。如:

    (1)He asked how he could find his courage. 他问道他如何才能找到他的勇气。

    (2)The question is why there is little rain here. 问题是这里为什么雨水少。

    注意2 连接词的选用问题

    A.that,whether,if,as if(限用于表语从句)都不作句子的任何成分。因此,它们所引导的句子结构必须完整。that 一般用于确定的语气中,引导宾语从句时,口语中的that可省略,而其他情况中的that一般不可省;而whether,if一般用于不确定的语句中。如:

    (1)That he learnt English before is certain. 他学过英语是肯定的。

    (2)I don’t know whether / if he will come. 我不知道他是否会来。

    (3)He looks as if he knows the answer. 看起来他好像知道答案。

    B.whether和if

    1)whether可用于任何名词性从句中,而一般只能用于宾语从句中。如果if引导主语从句时,只能放在句中,而不能置于句首。如:

    (1)Whether he will come or not doesn’t matter. —It doesn’t matter whether he will come or not. 他来还是不来都没关系。

    (2)Do you know if / whether his words are true? 你知道他的话是否真实吗?

    2)whether可与or not连用,而if则不可以。如

    (1)I’m not sure whether / if he can overcome the difficulties. 我没有把握他能否克服这些困难。

    (2)The radio didn’t say whether it would rain or not tomorrow. 收音机并没有报道明天是否下雨。

    3)若用if会产生歧义时,则用whether。

    (1)Let me know whether he will come. 告诉我他是否会来。

    (2)Let me know if he will come. 可理解为:告诉我他是否会来。也可理解为:如果他愿意来,就告诉我一声。

    4)whether可与不定式连用,而if不可以。

    Have you decided whether to go there tomorrow? 明天是否去那儿,你决定了吗?(句子中的whether不能用if替换)

    5)whether引导的从句可作某些介词及动词discuss的宾语,而if则不可以。如:

    (1)They are talking about whether they will take part in the strike. 他们在谈论他们是否要参加这次罢工。

    (2)They are discussing whether they can employ the new way. 他们在讨论他们是否可以采用这种新的方法。

    (以上两个句子中的whether 不能用if替换)

    6)宾语从句若为否定句,连接词则用if 而不用whether。如:

    Do you know if he hasn’t been to Washington? 你知道他是否没有去过华盛顿吗?

    此句子中的If不能用whether替换。

    C.连接代词、连接副词都作句子的成分,因此,选用时须确定从句是否缺少成分,然后再确定选用适当的连接词。如:

    (1)I don’t know ________ he lives.

    (2)I don’t know ________ he lives there.

    (3)I don’t know ________ he lives there by fishing.

    (4)I don’t know ________ he likes.

    根据从句里面的成分,句子(1)可填地点、方式等连接词where / how;句子(2)可填that, whether / if,原因连接副词why 或方式连接副词how;句子(3)可填that, whether / if,原因连接副词why;句子(4)缺少宾语,可填what。

范文9:词性从句【以文搜文】

    名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,高考常从连接词的选择、语序、语气、时态等方面来考查。为帮助同学们更好地掌握这一语法项目。

    一、名词性从句重难点归纳分析

    1、that和what都可以引导名词性从句,但that是连接词,本身无词义,仅起连接作用,不在从句中担任任何成份;what是连接代词,不仅引导名词性从句,而且在从句中充当一定的成份,如主语、宾语或表语。

    例 That he stole a bike was true. 他偷了一部自行车是真的。

    The important thing is what you do, but not what you say. 重要的是你做什么,而不是说什么。

    2、单个的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如果是两个或两个以上的主语从句作主语,谓语动词则用复数形式。

    例 Where and when he was born has not been found. 他出生在何时何地还不知道。

    When the person was murdered and why he was murdered are still unknown. 那个人何时被谋杀,为什么被谋杀尚不知道。

    3、在名词性从句中一律用陈述句的语序,即使从句表达的是疑问含义。

    例 The problem is what he has done to the little boy. 问题是他对那个小男孩做了些什么。

    4、连接词that引导的主语从句放在句首时,that不能省略。但为避免头重脚轻,可以用it作为形式主语,而把主语从句放到后面。如果that引导的主语从句出现在疑问句中时,必须以it作形式主语而把主语从句后置。

    例 Is it true that the scientist will give us a lecture next week? 那个科学家下个星期给我们作报告是真的吗?

    5、宾语从句的谓语动词时态受主句谓语动词的影响,如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句中的谓语动词可以用各种时态;如果主句中的谓语动词用了一般过去时,则从句中的谓语动只能用过去时的某种形式,但如果从句表达的是客观真理或客观存在则不受此影响。

    例 We believed that he had earned enough money to build a house.我们相信他已经挣够足够的钱来建造房屋。

    6、与命令、要求、建议等相关的名词性从句中通常用虚拟语气,虚拟语气的构成是should+动词原形或省去should,直接用动词原形。

    例 She insisted that she not be sent to the countryside.她坚持不被派到农村去。

    但是,如果suggest作表明、暗示讲,insist作坚持说、坚持认为讲,则其后的宾语从句中应该用陈述语气。

    例 The smile on his face suggested that he had passed the examination. 他脸上的微笑表明他已经通过了考试。

    7、同位语从句一般跟在某些表示抽象概念的名词后(如news, idea, information, fact, hope, thought, belief等),用来说明名词所表示的具体内容,引导同位语从句的连接词通常有that, whether和连接副词when, where, why, how;连接代词who,what,whose,which通常不能引导同位语从句。

    例 I have no idea when she will be back.我不知道他何时回来。

    8、whether和if均可引导动词后的宾语从句,常可互换。但从句中有or not时或介词宾语从句中只能用whether连接。其他名词性从句,如主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句只用whether连接,不用if。

    例 I dont care about whether you have money or not. 我并不在意你是否有钱。

    9、介词后的宾语从句一般不用which和if引导,要用whether和what。that也很少引导介词宾语从句,只在except, but, besides等之后才用。

    例 I could say nothing but that I was angry.我无话可说,只是感到生气。

    10、 引导宾语从句的连接词that一般可以省略,但如果有二个或二个以上的宾语从句时,只有第一个that可以省略。

    例 He said (that) the text was very difficult and that we had to work hard at it.他说课文很难,我们必须努力学习。

    11、当主句是I/ We think ( suppose, expect, believe, guess, imagine) 时,其后的宾语从句如果是否定形式,常把否定词not从从句中转移到主句中,成为否定的转移。

    例 We dont believe that he will win the game. 我们相信他不会赢得这场比赛。

    12、如果宾语从句后还有宾语补足语,则必须用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置,并且that不能省略。

    例 He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他清楚地表明他不会屈服。

    13、doubt用于肯定结构时,后面用whether/ if引导名词性从句;用于否定结构或疑问结构时,后面用that引导名词性从句。be sure 用于肯定句或疑问句时,后接that引导的名词性从句;用于否定句时,后接whether/ if引导的名词性从句。

    例 We doubt whether/ if he can win the game.我们怀疑他是否能赢得这场比赛。

    14、连接代词whoever,whatever,whichever可引导名词性从句,相当于anyone who, anything that等。他们也可以引导让步状语从句,相当于no matter who/ what/ which。

    例 Whoever breaks the law should be punished. 任何违法的人都要受到惩罚。

    二、高考链接

    1. It is pretty well understood ___ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. (2003上海)

    A. that B. when

    C. what D. how

    2. --- I think its going to be a big problem.

    --- Yes, it could be.

    --- I wonder ___ we do about it.(2002上海春)

    A. if B. how

    C. what D. that

    3. You should make it a rule to leave things ___ you can find them often. (1999NMET)

    A. when B. where

    C. then D. there

    4. A computer can only do ____ you have instructed it to do. (2001NMET)

    A. how B. after

    C. what D. when

    5. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ___ I disagree. (2004 NMET)

    A. why B. where

    C. what D. how

    6. I like ___ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. (2004 NMET)

    A. this B. that

    C. it D. one

    7. The road is covered with snow. I cant u

    nderstand ___ they insist on going by motor-bike. (2004NMET)

    A. Why B. whether

    C. when D. how

    8. We cant figure out ___ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out.(2004 北京)

    A. that B. as

    C. why D. when

    9. After Yang Liwei succeeded circling the earth, ___ our astronauts to do is walk in space. (2004 上海)

    A. where B. what

    C. that D. how

    10. A story goes ___ Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. (2004 上海)

    A. when B. where

    C. what D. that

    Key 1-5 CCBCB 6-10 CACBD

    三、强化练习

    1. He has given us a suggestion ____ we should buy a cottage in the country, with the money we have saved.

    A. when B. where

    C. what D. that

    2. After five hours drive, they reached ____ they thought was the place theyd been dreaming of.

    A. that B. where

    C. which D. what

    3. It is no longer a question now ___ man can land on the moon.

    A. that B. which

    C. whether

    D. what

    4. She is pleased with ____ you have given him and all that you have told him.

    A. that B. what

    C. why D. which

    5. Father made a promise ____ I passed the exam, he would buy me a bicycle.

    A. that B. if

    C. whether D. that if

    6. ____ surprised me most was that she didnt even know ____ the difference between the two lies.

    A. What, where B. What, what

    C. That, where D. That, what

    7. Sometimes we are asked ___ we think the likely result of an action will be.

    A. that B. what

    C. which D. whether

    8. Nobody knows ___ he mentioned that at the meeting.

    A. that B. why

    C. what D. where

    9. There is no doubt ____ my friend was not important to them all.

    A. that B. whether

    C. if D. why

    10. I have no idea ____ they will visit our school; we have got everything ready.

    A. how B. when

    C. that D. why

    Key 1-5 DDABD

    6-10 ABBAB

    高一名词性从句典型题

    1. ____he does has nothing to do with me.

    A. whatever B. No matter what C. That D. If

    2. The manager came over and asked the customer how____

    A. did the quarrel came about B .the quarrel had come about

    C. had the quarrel come about D. had the quarrel come about

    3. Energy is ____makes thing work..

    A. what B. something C. anything D. that

    4. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.

    A. while B. that C. when D. as

    5. This is ___the shenzhou V Spaceship landed.

    A. there B. in which C. where D. when

    6. They have no idea at all____.

    A. where he has gone B. where did he go

    C. which place has he gone D. where has he gone

    7. The doctor did a lot to reduce the patients fear ____he would die of the disease.

    A. that B. which C. of which D. of that

    8. The order came ___the soldiers ____the small village the next morning.

    A. that ;had to leave B. that; should leave

    C. /; must leave D. when; should leave

    9. ___is no possibility ____Bob can win the first prize in the match.

    A. There; that B. It; that C. there; whether D. It; whether

    10. The question came up at the meeting_____ we had enough money for our research.

    A. that B. which C. whether D. if

    11. Is _____he said really true?

    A. that B. what C. why D. whether

    12.____the meeting should last two days or three days doesnt matter.

    A. That B. Whether C. If D. Where

    13. It worried her a bit _____her hair was turning gray.

    A. while B. if C. that D. for

    14. ???_____more countries can use natural energy in the future remains to be seen.

    A. Whether B. This C. who D. If

    15.____he will go to work in a mountain village surprises all of us.

    A. What B. That C. Whether D. If

    16. ____you dont like him is none of my business.

    A. What B. That C. Who D. How

    17.____all the inventions have in common is ____they have succeeded.

    A. What; what B. That; that C. what; that D. That ; what

    18. ____appeared to me that he enjoyed the food very much.

    A. What B. It C. All that D. That

    19. It is widely ______that smoking can cause cancer.

    A. believed B. think C. say D. hoped

    20. ____caused the accident is still a complete mystery.

    A. What B. That C. How D. Where

    Keys:

    1—5 ABABC 6—10 AABAC 11—15 BBCAB 16—20 BCBAA

范文10:英语语法词性从句知识:同位语从句与定语从句区别【以文搜文】

    同位语从句与定语从句形相似而实质不同,具体表现在以下几个方面:1. 被修饰的词不同:同位语从句的前面一般是数量有限的、表示抽象意义的名词;而定语从句的先行词是无数的指人或物名词。2. 从句的作用不同:同位语从句表示同位名词的具体内容,而定语从句是对先行词的限制、描绘或说明。3. 引导词不同:what, how, whether等不能用引导定语从句,但可用于引导同位从句。4. 引导词的作用不同:引导同位语从句的that是连词,在从句中不充当任何成分;而引导定语从句的that为关系代词,在从句中充当一定的句子成分。5. 判定定语从句和同位语从句的方法:由于同位语从句是用以说明被修饰名词的具体内容的,所它可以转换同位名词的表语;而定语从句则不能作这种转换。一、从句法功能上来看同位语从句中连接词that在从句中不作句子成分,也没有词汇含义,只起连接作用,其作用大致相当于一个冒号;而引导定语从句的that是关系代词,且在句中充当句子的成分(主语或宾语)。如:I hold the belief that where there is a will, there is a way. (that引导的是同位语从句,它在从句中不充当句子成分)The letter that I received yesterday was from my sister. (that引导的是定语从句,它在从句中充当宾语)二、从意义上来看同位语从句所表达的内容与作为中心词的名词所表达的内容是一样的,两者之间可以划等号;而定语从句则是限制或修饰中心词的,中心词所表达的内容不等于定语从句所表达的内容。如:He told me the news that his uncle would come home from abroad on National Day. (that引导的是同位语从句,其中the news = his uncle would come home from abroad on National Day)This is the factory that we visited last month. (that引导的是定语从句,其中 the factory≠ we visited last month.)三、从中心名词上来看同位语从句中的中心名词常是一些表示概括意义的抽象名词,这类名词有fact, idea, view, thought, order, suggestion, news, truth, hope, promise, answer, belief, condition, doubt, fear, problem, proof, question 等。而定语从句中的中心名词是没有限定的。如:四、从that是否可以省略来看引导同位语从句的连词that一般不能省略,而在定语从句中,that作宾语时,可以省略。另外,引导定语从句的that若指事物,它可以用which来代替,而在同位语从句中,that 永远不能用which替代。 来自: 许愿真 >《高中语法》转藏到我的图书馆 献花(0)分享到:类似文章同位语从句与定语从句的区...【英语】掌握名词性从句,...名词性从句精讲高中语法大全最新定语从句讲解与练习现代汉语语法纲要(原创)更多类似文章 >>