初中英语词性分类总复习

中考英语总复习第二轮教案

一.名词 考试标准:1.了解名词复数形式的构成规则。

2.能识别名词所有格,如 Mary's book,Children’s Palace,teacher's office 等。 3.能认识专有名词。 4.能熟练运用常用的不可数名词,如 water,rice,milk 等。

名词的数 1、可数名词与不可数名词 A、不可数名词,初中阶段常见的不可数名词有:water ; meat ; rice ; bread ; milk ; tea ; orange(桔汁) ; fruit ; air ; snow ; chalk; work ; paper(纸) ; time(时间); music ; weather ; grass ; news ; food ; fish(鱼肉); coke ; porridge ; cake(可 数或不可数). 不可数名词应注意以下几点: 1)前无数、冠,后无复数;作主语为三单. 2)表量用约数 some /any ; much ; a lot of 或用 of 短语 eg. There is ____ bread on the table. [C] A. a B. one C. a piece of D. many There is some_______ on the plate. [B] A. apple B. fish C. milks D. deer 2、可数名词的复数 A、不规则变化: man—men ; woman—women ;child—children policeman—policemen Englishman—Englishmen Frenchman—Frenchmen foot—feet ; tooth—teeth mouse(鼠)—mice B、规则变化 1)s; sh; ch; x 结尾加 es 读 [iz] 2) ce; se; ze; (d)ge 结尾加 s eg. boxes [b ksiz] blouses [blauziz] 3)f (fe) 结尾则变 f(fe)为 v 加 es---读[vz] eg. knives [naivz] 4) ―辅+y‖结尾变 y 为 i 加 es 清就清[s] 5)一般加 s 浊就浊[z] eg. books[buks] pens[penz] babies[beibiz] 但注意以下几点: ① potato—potatoes ; tomato—tomatoes ② 单复同形: fish ; sheep ; deer ; Chinese ; Japanese ③ 由 man , woman 在词首构成的复合名词应将两部分都变成复数 man doctor — men doctors ④ reef—reefs ⑤ “某国人”的复数:中日不变英法变,其余 s 加后面. eg. German—Germans ⑥ people , police 常用单数形式表示复数概念 The police are looking for the missing boy. 名词所有格:

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名词’s (意思是 ―??的‖) A.有生命的名词所有格,一般在后加“’s”但注意: 1)表两者共有则在后者加“’s” Lucy and Lily’s father 露西和莉莉的父亲 Lucy’s and Lily’s fathers 露西的父亲和莉莉的父亲. 2)以 s 结尾的词只加“ ’ ” eg. 1) the boys’ books 2) James’ father 3)无生命的名词所有格用 of 来引导 eg. the leg of the desk 4)双重所有格:a friend of my father’s a friend of mine ( √ ) a friend of my( × )

选择正确的答案 ( )1.—Are those ______? ---No, they aren’t. They’re _____. A. sheep ; cows B. sheep ; cow C. sheeps ; cow D. sheeps ; cows ( )2.___ room is on the 5th floor. A. Lucy and Lily B. Lucy and Lily’s C. Lucy’s and Lily D. Lucy’s and Lily’s ( )3.Every morning Mr. Smith takes a ____ to his office. A. 20 minutes’ walk B. 20 minute’s walk C. 20-minutes walk

D. 20-minute walk ( )4.It’s only about ten ____ walk to the nearest post office. A. minutes B. minute’s C. minutes’ D. minute ( )5.He often has ____ for breakfast. A. two breads B. two piece of breads C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads ( )6.Mrs. Green has two ____. They’re very bright. A. childs B. child C. children’s D. children ( )7.What did the headmaster say about Jim’s ______. A. two months holiday B. two months’ holiday C. two-month holiday D. two month’s holidays ( )8.There are lots of ___ in the basket on the table . A. tomatos B. tomato C. tomatoes D. tomatoss ( )9.In our school there are fifty-five ___. A. women teachers B. woman teachers C. women teacher D. woman’s teacher ( )10.The three ___ will be put into prison. A. thiefs B. thief C. thieves D. thiefs’

二、冠词 考试标准:了解 a(an)和 the 的基本用法及不用冠词的情况。

1、不定冠词 a, an

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a 用在辅音音素开头的词前 eg. a book a useful book a ―u‖ [ju:sful] [ju:] an 用于元音开头的词前. eg. an apple an hour an ―F‖ [au ] [ef] 2、定冠词 the 1)特指某人/某物 The book on the desk is mine. 2)世上独一无二的事物前 the sun , the moon, the earth, the sky 3)形、副最高级及序数词前 The third boy is the tallest of all. (但当这些词前已有其他限定词,如物主代词、所有格、指示代词时,则不能再用 the) He is my first English teacher. 4)the + 姓的复数表示 “某家人”或“某夫妇” 。 the Greens 格林一家/ 格林夫妇 3、不用冠词的几种情况: 1)在星期、月份、季节前不用冠词 2)学科名词前 3)球类运动及早、中、晚三餐名词前(但:①当三餐名词前有修饰词时,则要加适当的冠词. ②表乐曲演奏的名 词前应加 the) 1) He went to school after he had a quick breakfast. 2) play the violin / piano

( )1.Maths is ___ useful subject. You can’t drop it , I think. A. an B. a C. the D. / ( )2.____ bad weather it is! A. How B. What a C. How a D. What ( )3.Look at ____ picture! There’s ____ house in it. A. a ; a B. the ; the C. a ; the D. the; a ( )4.One morning he found ____ handbag. There was ___ ―s‖ on the corner of ___ handbag. A. a ; an ; the B. a ; a ; the C. a ; a ; a D. the ; an ; a ( )5.Meimei is ___ best student in her class. A. a B. an C. / D. the ( )6.Tom is ___ kind boy. All ___ students love him. A. a ; / B. a ; the C. an ; / D. an ; the ( )7.Even while he was in ___ hospital, he went on writing songs. A. a B. an C. the D. / ( )8.____ young must look after ___ old. A. The ; a B. The ; the C. A ; a D. A ; the ( )9.Kate sometimes plays ___ violin(小提琴) and sometimes plays ___ table tennis before supper. A. / ; the B. the ; / C. the ; the D. / ; /

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三、代词 考试标准:1. 记住人称代词的主格和宾格,熟悉反身代词的单、复数形式。 2. 掌握不定代词 any, some ,no, few 等以及由 some , any , no 组成的合成词 的用法。 3. 掌握指示代词 this, that, these, those 的一般用法。 4. 了解形容词性和名词性物主代词的用法。 5. 能区别和运用疑问代词、连接代词和关系代词。

(一)指示代词:this , that , these , those. this , that 一般与可数名词的单数连用,而不与不可数名词连用(但 that 可单独指代不可数名词) 。 that apple ( √ ) that meat ( × ) The weather in Sichuan is not so hot as ______ in Guangzhou. [that] (二)人称代词、物主代词和反身代词 1)人称代词:主格、宾格(作主语为主格, 作宾语为宾格; 介+宾格) eg. 1)I thank you 2)You thank me. 2)物主代词:形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。 一变(my—mine); 二留(his—his its—its) 三加 s(your—yours ; our—ours ; her—hers ; their—theirs) 用法:有名不名,无名是名 eg. This is _____(我的)book. This book is ______(我的). [ my ; mine] 3)反身代词:某某自己;亲自 单数 yourself myself himself herself itself 反身代词的常见搭配: 1.enjoy oneself 玩得高兴;过得愉快 2.hurt oneself 伤着自己 3.teach oneself = learn… by oneself 自学 4.(all) by oneself (完全)独立地 5.help oneself to 请自便;随便吃? themselves 复数 yourselves ourselves

6.look after oneself 自理;照顾自己

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7.leave one by oneself 把?单独留下 8.lose oneself in 陶醉于?;沉浸于? (三)不定代词 1)some 与 any 一般情况下,some 用于肯定句,any 用于否定句、疑问句(但表邀请、建议的问句中可用 some—此类句型 常以 could , would 开头) 2) many + 可数 = a lot of : 许多 much + 不可数 (但 a lot of 不能用于否定句) 3) few , a few ; little , a little 表否定 表肯定 ①.The story is easy to read. There are ____new words in it. [few] 可数 few(几乎没有) a few(几个;一些) ②.Hurry up! There is_____ time left. [little] 不可 little(几乎没有) a little(一点儿少许) 4) everyone / anyone 不加 of 数 no one 不加 of none of ( )____ of us wants to read the book. [B] A. Everyone B. Every one C. Nobody D. No one 5)other ,another , others

单数 泛 指 特 指 another 三者以上的另一个 one…the other 一个?另一个 定语 other 复数 主语、宾语 some…others

the others =the other+ 复名(另外的人或物)

①.We study _____ subjects besides Chinese. ②.May I have ___________ apple ? ③.These cups are clean. ________ are dirty. ④.I have two pens. One is

red , ________ is blue. [ other ; another ; others ; the others] 另外注意:one another (三者以上的)相互 each other (两者的)相互 We should learn from each other(说明 we 指两个人) They help one another (说明 they 指三个人以上) 6) 二者与三者

复数 二者 三者 both(都) all(都) 单数 neither(都不) none(都不) 单数 either(任何一个) any(任何一个)

注意: ①.both 否定 neither all 否定 none ②.both , all 不但作主语为复数, 且被修饰的词也为复数; neither , none 作主语为单数, 但 none of + 复名, neither of + 复名 ( )1.____ of my parents is a teacher. [B] A. None B. Neither C. Both D. All

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( )2.There are many trees on ____ side of the river. A. both B. any C. either D. all every one / any one of 7) each: (二者以上的)每个——作主、宾、定) every: (三者以上的)每个——只作定语)

[C]

①.____ student in the class likes English. ②.___ of the students studied hard. [Every ; Each]

( )1.____office is much smaller than ____. A. Ours ; yours B. Our ; yoursC. Theirs ; our ( )2. ―Help___ to some meat.‖my uncle said to me . A. themselves B. yourself C. yourselves ( )3. There are twenty teachers in our school. Eight of them are men teachers and ____ are women teachers. A. others B. the others C. another ( )4.There isn’t ____ paper in the box. Will you go and get ____ for me ? A. any ; some B. any ; any C. some ; any ( )5.There are many trees on ___ sides of the street. A. both B. all C. each ( )6.___ of them has a dictionary and ____ one of them can look up words in it. A. Each ; every B. Every; each C. Every; every ( )7.The two friends were so pleased to see each other that they forgot _____. A. other everything B. anything else C. everything else. ( )8.The river is very dirty. ____ people go to swim in it. A. Few B. A few C. Little ( )9.A friend of ____ came to see ____ yesterday. A. his ; his B. he ; him C. his ; him ( )10Who teaches ___ French? A. we B. our C. us

四、数词 考试标准: 1. 了解 100 以内的基数词和序数词的构成。 2. 掌握有关年、月、日、时刻、年龄、年代、长(宽、高) 、编号等的表 达法。 3.辨别 hundred, thousand, million 和 hundreds of , thousands of, millions of 的不用含义和用法。

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数词分为基数词和序数词。用于表示事物数目的词称为基数词,表示事物顺序的词称为序数词。 1.基数词(1000 以内的基数词的读法) 365—three hundred and sixty-five 505—five hundred and five 2.基数词变序数词的方法: 基变序,有规律;词尾要加 th。 一二三,特殊记;词尾分别 tdd。 八去 t ,九

去 e ;ve 则以 f 替。 ty 则变作 ti ; 后面还有一个 e。

要是遇到几十几;只将个位变成序。 eg. one—first two—second three—third eight—eighth nine—ninth twelve—twelfth twenty—twentieth twenty-one –-twenty-first 3.数词的应用: A、时刻表达法: 整点:基数词 + o’clock eg. It’s eight o’clock now. b. 几点几分: 1.直接表达法:先小时后分 eg. 3:25 three twenty-five 2.间接表达法:先分后小时 1)(<30 分钟)用 past :分钟 past 小时 eg. 3:25 twenty-five (minutes) past three 2) (>30 分钟)用 to:(60-分钟数) to (小时数+1) eg. 3:35 twenty-five (minutes) to four 3) 30 分钟 = half 15 分钟 = a quarter eg. 3:30 three thirty = half past three 3:15 three fifteen = a quarter past three. 3:45 three forty-five = a quarter to four B、日期表达法:月日,年(或日月年) a. 1949 年 10 月 1 日 : October1st , nineteen forty-nine =the first of October, nineteen forty-nine 2000 年: the year two thousand =twenty hundred

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2001 年:

twenty o one

3 月 1 日: March the first = the first of March C、表编号: 第 207 房间:Room 207 第五课: Lesson 5 = the fifth lesson D、序数词与不定冠词(a; an)连用表“又一;再一” eg. You’ve done it three times. Why not try a fourth time? E、分数的表达:分子(基数) 、分母(序数) eg. one third 三分之一 two thirds 三分之二 注意:1.分子超过 1 时,分母加 s 2.含分数的短语作主语由分数后的词决定谓语 eg.1)One third of the students are girls. 2)One third of the milk is mine. 3.分数的特殊形式 1)one third = a third 2)one fourth = a quarter three fourths = three quarters 3)one second = a half F、一些数词的复数 + of 表约数: hundreds of ; thousands of ; millions of

( )1.If you go out at night, you’ll be able to see ____ starts. A. thousands of B. thousand of

C. nine thousands of D. thousands ( )2.Monday is ___ day of the week. A. first C. the second B. the first D. second

( )3.You’ve done it twice. Why not try ____ time? A. third B. the third C. a third D. once ( )4.I was born ___, 1982. A. on June 2rd B. in June 2nd

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C. on June two

D. on June 2

( )5.It’s ____ from our home to the zoo. A. two and a half hours’ walk B. a half and two hours walk C. two hours and a half hour’s walk D. two and a half hour’s walk ( )6.Will you be back in ____ ? A. one or two minutes B. one minute or two C. two minutes or one D. two or one minute ( )7.The headmaster wrote a ___ report. A. two thousand words B.two-thousand-words C. two-thousand words D. two-thousand-word

五、介词 考试标准:1. 掌握常用介词的

用法。 2. 了解不用介词的用法。

1.in; on; at 用在时间词前,表“在” 1)at + 具体时刻 2)on + 具体某天(具体某天的上、下午等;星期词;以及上、下午词前有修饰词时) 3)in + 年、月、季节及一天中的某部分 但注意:at night= in the night at noon at this / that time at Christmas eg. 1.___ the morning 2.___ Monday morning 3. ___ a rainy evening 4. ___3:50 5.__ 2002 6.___ the morning of April 10 7.___ spring 8.___ night 9.___ this time 10. ___ March 另外注意: 在时间词 (morning , afternoon , evening ; Sunday…) 前有 last, next , this , that 时, 不再用介词. tomorrow, tonight 前也不用介词。 eg. I will go(A) to the cinema(B) in(C) this evening. ______________ 2. in , on , at 表地点: at 一般指小地方;in 一般指大地方或某个范围之内;on 往往表示“在某个物体的表面” 。例如:

eg. 1)He arrived ___Shanghai yesterday. 2)They arrived ___a small village before dark. 3)There is a big hole ____ the wall. 4)The teacher put up a picture ____ the wall.

3.in , on , to 表方位 in(范围内);on(范围外且接壤);to(范围外但不接壤)。可表示为下图的位置关系

eg.1)Taiwan is in the southeast of China.

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2)Hubei is on the north of Hunan. 3)Japan is to the east of China. cross: 动词“跨过,越过”=go across 4. across: (表面)跨过 through: (内部)穿过,贯穿 介词 eg. 1)Can you swim _____ the river? 2)The road runs __________ the forest. 3) _____ the bridge, you’ll find a cinema. 5. in + 时间段:与将来时连用 after + 时间段:与过去时连用 但 after + 时间点:可与将来时连用。 1) I’ll leave _______ three o’clock.. That is, I’ll leave ________ about ten minutes. 2)They left _______ two weeks. 6. in the tree(外加在树上的事物) on the tree(树上自身具有的花、果、叶等) in the wall(镶嵌在墙内部的事物) 7. on the wall(墙表面的事物) 1) There is a map ___ the wall 2) There are four windows ___ the wall. 8.by bike / bus / car / ship (单数且无冠词) 但当这些交通工具名词前有其它修饰词时,则应使用相应的介词。 eg. by bike = on a(the; his) bike by car = in a(the ; her) car on: 在?(表面)上——接触 9. over: 在?的正上方 above: 在?的斜上方 未接触 1) The moon rose ______ the hill. 2) There is a bridge _____ the river. 3) There is a book ______ the desk. 10. between: 在(两者)之间 among :在(三者以上)之间 1)A big crowd of people were waiting for Li Lida on the beach. ________ them were his parents. 2)Tom sits ________Lucy and Lily. 11.on 与 about : 关于 on 用于较正式的演讲、学术、书籍等 about 用于非正式的谈话或随便提及 eg. He gave a talk ____ the history of the Party 12. in front

of :在?前面/方(范围外)= before in / at the front of:在??前部(范围内) 1)There is a big tree _______ of the classroom. 2)A driver drives _________ of the bus. 类似区别:at the back of 与 behind

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13.with 和 in: 表示“用“ with: 指“用工具、手、口等” in: 指“用语言、话语、声音等” 1) Please write the letter ____ a pen. 2) Please speak ____ a loud voice. 14. on a farm ; in a factory ; the girl in the hat ; leave for: 动身前往某地 15.一些固定搭配: (1)介词与动词的搭配 listen to , laugh at, get to, look for; wait for, hear from, turn on, turn off, worry about, think of, look after, spend…on…, 等。 (2)介词与名词的搭配 on time, in time, by bus, on foot, with pleasure, on one’s way to, in trouble, at breakfast, at the end of, in the end 等。 (3)介词与形容词的搭配 be late for, be afraid of, be good at, be interested in, be angry with, be full of, be sorry for 等。 练习 ( )1.___ the afternoon of May, we visited the old man. A. On B. At C. In ( )2.Many people work ___ the day and sleep ___ night. A. on ; at B. in ; in C. in ; at ( )3.He speaks Japanese best ____ the boy students. A. between B. with C. among ( )4.He’s very strict ____ himself and he’s very strict ___ his work. A. with ; in B. in ; with C. with ; with ( )5.The shop won’t open ___ nine in the morning. A. until B. at C. during ( )6.How about ___ the flowers now? A. watering B. are watering C. watered ( )7.She spent all his money ___ books. A. in B. with C. on ( )8.I think it’s the right way to work out the problem, but I am not sure _____ it. A. do B. for C. of ( )9.Reading ___ the sun isn’t good ___ you A. under ; for B. in ; for C. in ; to ( )10.I won’t ask about it, I’m going to see it ____ my own eyes. A. by B. for C. with ( )11.No one can stop her ___ going away. A. of B. from C. out of

六、连词

考试标准:1.掌握 and, but, or 等并列连词和 when, until, as, if because 等从属连词 在句中的不同含义以及主要用法。

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2. 能区分 when, where 作疑问词和连接副词的用法。 3. 能分清 if 在条件句和宾语从句的不同含义。

从属连词和并列连词 (一)从属连词:用于连接各种从句的连词 (二)并列连词: 并列连词用来连接具有并列关系的词,短语或句子。常见的并列连词有: 1.表并列关系的 and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor 等。 2. 表选择关系的 or, either…or 等。 3. 表转折关系的 but, while(然而)等。 4.表因果关系的 for, so 等。 5. and: “和”在肯定句中表并列 or: “和”在否定句中表

并列 另外:1)or “或者”用于选择疑问句 2)or “否则” eg. ①.Which do you like better, tea or milk? ②.Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school. 6.but “但是”表转折 eg. I listened, but I heard nothing. 注意:1)though(虽然), but(但是)不能连用 2)not … but 不是?而是 eg. This book isn’t mine but yours. both… and : 既?又(连接主语为复数) neither…nor: 既不?也不 7. either…or: 或者?或者

连接两主 语后者决

not only … but also:不但?而且 定单、复 eg.1)Both he and I are students. 2)Neither he nor I am a student.

( )1. ---Will the foreigners have any problems talking with Chinese in 2008? ---I don’t think so. Now ______ the young ______ the old can speak some English. A. either…or B. not only… but also C. neither…nor D. both…or ( )2. We didn’t catch the train _______ we left late. A. so B. because C. but D. though ( )3. Tom failed in the exam again _______ he wanted to pass it very much.

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A. if B. so C. though D. as ( )4. I won’t believe that the five-year-old boy can read five thousand words ______ I have tested him myself. A. after B. when C. if D. until ( )5. The book was so interesting that he had read it for three hours ______ he realized it. A. when B. until C. after D. before ( )6. ---This dress was last year’s style. ---I think it still looks perfect ______ it has gone out this year. A. so that B. even though C. as if D. ever since ( )7. Hurry up, _______ you will miss the train. A. and B. so C. however D. or ( )8. The mountain was ______ steep _____ few people in our city reached the top. A. so…as B. so…that C. as…as D. too…to ( )9. ---Do you remember our pleasant journey to Xi’an? ---Of course. I remember everything ______ it happened yesterday. A. as soon as B. even though C. rather than D. as if ( )10. ______ you can’t answer this question, we have to ask someone else for help. A. Although B. While C. Whether D. Since

七、形容词、副词

考试标准: 1.了解形容词、副词的定义和在句中的用法。 2.重点掌握形容词、副词的比较等级。 一、了解形容词作定语,表语及宾语补足语的用法。 二、掌握形容词、副词的比较等级及用法。

1.原级:表示 A 与 B 在某方面相同。 句型:1) A + 谓 + as + 原级 + as + B 2) A + 谓(否定) + as/so + 原级 + as + B A 与 B 在某方面不同 注意:not as / so… as = less than 不及;不如 eg. 1)This girl is as beautiful as that one. 2)You don’t eat so much as I 3)This book isn’t as interesting as that one = This book is ___ ________ _____ that one

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2.比较级:两者进行比较(常与 t

han 连用) 1)I am cleverer than you 我比你聪明。 2)He runs faster than Jim 他比 Jim 跑得快。 3)I picked more apples than Jim.我比你摘的苹果多。 4)Which is more interesting, this one or that one? 哪本书更有趣,这本还是那本? 3.最高级:三者(或三者以上)进行比较(常与表范围的 in , of 短语连用) ( 注意:of + 个体名词单数 in + 集合名词 ) eg. 1)Shanghai is the biggest city in China. 2)He runs fastest in our class. 3)He is the tallest of the three boys. 4)Which is the easiest, Lesson1, Lesson2 or Lesson3 ? 4.形、副比较等级的其他用法 1) ―比较级 and 比较级‖ 表示 ―越来越??‖ eg. lazier and lazier 越来越懒 (但注意:如果多音节词用此结构时应为 more and more + 形、副) eg. more and more beautiful 越来越漂亮 2) ―the 比较级,the 比较级‖ ―越??,越??‖ eg. the more, the better 多多益善 _________ you are, _______ you will get. 你越懒,收获越少。 3) ―the 比较级 of +二者‖ ―二者中较??的一个‖ eg. 1) Lucy is the younger of the twins. 2) Of(A) the two books(B) this one(C) is thicker(D). 4)表示二者相差多少用 “具体数量 + 比较级” eg. He’s a head taller than me. My brother is two years older than me 5)表示“是??几倍”时用“twice; three times 等 + as…as” eg. 1)This book costs twice as much as that one. 这本书的价钱是那本书的两倍。 2)He has four times as many books as I have 他拥有的书是我拥有的四倍。 6)区别 older / elder 与 farther / further older(年龄较老的) elder(指兄弟姐妹中排行在前的)

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eg. My ______ brother is ______ than me. farther (指距离“较远的”) further(指抽象事物的“更进一步的”) eg.1)He went abroad for ________ studies. 2)Fusun is _________ from our school than Zhaohua.

形、副比较等级还应注意 1.比较级前用 a little ; much / a lot ; even / still 来加强语气,表示“??一点儿;??得多 ; 更??” eg. 1) a little bigger 大一点儿 2)much more 多得多 3)even heavier 更重 但注意:不能在比较级前加 so; too; very; quite 等。 2.比较级必须是同类事物相比 (即 as; than 后的词应与主语是同类事物) , 注意常用漏的代词有: that; those; one; ones eg. 1)The apples (A) in this basket (B) are redder (C) than in that basket(D). _________ 2)This knife (A) isn’t (B) so (C) new as that (D). 3)Our classroom (A) is (B) bigger (C) than Lily(D). _______________ _______________

3.个体与整体相比,不能包括个体,常用“any other + 单数名词”来进行比较。 eg.1)Betty(是个体) is cleverer than any student in her class(是整体). 正:Betty is cleverer than any other student in her class. =Be

tty is cleverer than anybody else in her class. =Betty is the cleverest in her class. (特别注意以上三种句型的转换) 2)China is bigger than any country in Africa. 中国比非洲的任何一个国家都大。 3) China is bigger than any other country in Asia. 中国比亚洲的任何一个其他国家大。 *4.使用最高级时应把主语包括在范围内。 eg. Mary is the tallest of all her sisters.( × ) (all her sisters 已排除了 Mary) 改:Mary is the tallest of all the sisters. 5.表示“第二、第三??”时,可在最高级前加“second , third, ?” (但“第一”不能用 first) eg. The Changjiang River is the first longest river in China. 改错:________________ ( × )

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附:形、副比较级和最高级的变化规则 A、规则变化 1.“辅 + y”结尾,变 y 为 i 加 er , est (但“形 + ly ”构成的副词除外) 2.双写加 er , est 3.直接加 er , est / r, st 4.在多音词前加 more , most (以“形 + ly ”构成的副词也在前加 more , most) B、不规则变化 原级 good/well many/much bad/ill/badly little old far 比较级 better more worse less older/elder farther further 另外: 1) 以-er , -ow , -ble , -ple 结尾的双音节词加 er, est / r, st. narrow ________ ________ simple _________ _________ able _______ _______ 2) tired__________ __________ pleased ___________ ____________ 3) often ________________ _____________ friendly_______________ ____________ 4)在形容词的最高级前一般加 the, 副词的最高级前一般不加 the (但当形容词最高级前有物主代词、所有格时则 不再加 the)。 eg. Lily is my the best friend.(改错) ________ 5)形容词作表语、 定语, 修饰名词(但部分形容词不能作定语,只能表语:ill ; alone ; asleep ; afraid ; interested ; excited ; surprised ). 副词作状语,修饰动词。 最高级 best most worst least oldest/eldest farthest furthest

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( )1.Which language is ____ , English, French or Chinese? A. difficult B. the difficult

C. more difficult D. the most difficult ( )2.Yangpu Bridge is one of ___ in the world A. bigger bridge B. the biggest bridge C. the biggest bridges D. bigger bridges ( )3.Tom is taller than Mike. But he is not ____ Mike. A. strong as C. so strong B. so strong as D. as strong C. heavily

( )4.Put on more clothes. It is snowing ___ outside. A. strongly B. heavy ( )5.John drives as ___ as Tom. A. carefully B. good C. nice D. fine ( )6.Is China larger than ____ in Africa. A. any country C. any countries B. any other country D. all countries

( )7.My ___ brother is ___ than I. A. elder, three years older B. older ; older C. older; three years elder D. e

lder ; elder ( )8.Li Mei is more beautiful than ___ in her class. A. any girl C. all the girls B. any other girl D. any girls

( )9.This film is ___ interesting than that one. A. more B. much C. very D. the most

( )10.There is ___ in today’s newspaper. A. interesting nothing B. nothing interesting C. interested nothing D. nothing interested ( )11.It seems that men are ____ making computers than women. A. better at C. well in B. good at D. weak in

( )12.This bridge is not ___ long and wide ____ the one in my hometown. A. so ; as B. very ; than C. too; as D. very ; as ( )13.I think the song in the film ―Titanic‖ is ___ one of all the movie songs.

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A. the most beautiful B. most beautiful C. much more beautiful D. a beautiful ( )14. Jack didn’t run ___ to catch the bus. A. enough fast C. enough slow B. quickly enough D. slowly enough

( )15.The driver is very ___. He often drives his car _____. A. careful ; careful C. carefully ; careful B. carefully; carefully D. careful ; carefully

( )16.Look! All the children are working ___ on the farm. A. careful B. hard C. busy D. happy ( )17.The population of Shanghai is ___ than that of Xi’an. A. smaller B. fewer C. much D. larger

八、动词 考试标准:1. 熟悉常用的基本形式:动词原形,过去式,过去分词,现 在分词和第三人称单数形式。 2. 能正确使用常用及物动词和不及物动词。 3. 掌握常用连系动词如 be, get, look, seem 等, 及其与表语连 用的特点。 4. 能分清 look, get, grow, turn 等作连系动词和作为行为动词 用的不用含义。 5. 能正确使用助动词如 be, do ,have ,shall, will 等。 6. 掌握情态动词 can, may, must 等的基本用法, can’t, may, must,might 等表推测的用法,以及 needn’t, mustn’t 等在答语中的基 本用法。 7. 能正确使用六种时态:一般现在时、一般过去时、现在进

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行时、过去进行时、现在完成时、一般将来时。 8. 掌握一般现在时、一般过去时和带有情态动词 can,may, must 等的被动语态。 9. 熟悉并掌握动词不定式作宾语、状语和作宾语补足语的用 法。 10. 理解现在分词与过去分词在用法上的区别。

动词的四种形式 A、动三单的变法 1) ―辅+y‖结尾, 变 y 为 i 加 es 2) ―以 s; sh; ch; x; o 结尾, 加 es 3)直接加 s 但 have----has B、现在分词的变法 1)去 e 加 ing (e 不发音) 2)双写加 ing (―辅元辅‖结尾且重读,y;w 列外) 3)直接加 ing 写出下列动词的现在分词 1.see_______2.come ________3.stop_______ 4.open _______5.listen_______6.drop ______ 7.prefer________8.fix_______ 9.relax ______ 10.die

_______11.tie _______12.lie _______ C、动词的过去式和过去分词 (一)不规则变化(见课本不规则变化表 P255) (二)规则变化 1) ―辅+y‖结尾,变 y 为 i 加 ed 2)双写加 ed 3)直接加 ed 写出下列动词的过去式和过去分词 1.drop ______ _______2.stop ______ ______ 3.prefer ________ _________ 4.study ______ ______5.try ______ ____ 6.fix _____ ______ 7.relax ______ ______ 附Ⅱ——情态动词(can/ could; may/ might; must; should)+动原 1.must(必须)——needn’t(不必) may(可以)——mustn’t(不许;不准;不可以) 2.注意几个题:

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1)—May I go with you? —No, you _________. 2)—Must I turn off the light now? —Yes, you ______/ No, you _________ 附Ⅲ——动词不定式与动名词 A、动词不定式作宾补 1)tell / ask / want sb to do ______________ 否定式:tell/ask/want sb not to do __________ ____________________ 2)省 to 不定式作宾补 即:(l, m, n, 3h, 2 看, 1f) sb do l—let; m—make; n—notice; 3h—hear, have, help; 2 看—see, watch; 1f—feel 但注意:1)help sb (to) do (to 可省、可不省) 2)在改作被动语态时省去的 to 应还原 eg. Someone heard him sing in the room. He was heard to sing in the room. B、动词不定式与动名词的区别 1.(hope; learn; want=would like; decide) to do 2.(enjoy; finish; keep; mind; practise) doing

?be busy (in) ? ?spend...(in) ? ? ? ? feel like ? ? ? ... from? ?stop / keep / prevent ? ? on to ?m akea contributi ?doing ? prefer doing to ? ? ? have fun ? ? ?have som e problem s ? ? ? ? ? be worth ? ?

? to do : 停下来去做(另一件事 ) ?stop doing : 停止做(正在做的事) ? ? to do : 忘记做?? (未做) ? 3.? forget doing : 忘记已做了 ?? (已做) ? ? to do : 记住做?? (未做) ?rem em ber ? doing : 记住已做了 ?? (已做) ?

4.(see , watch , hear ) sb

do (动作结束) doing (动作在进行)

5.go on

to do : 接着做 ?? (另一件事) doing : 继续做 ?? (原来的事)

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6 ( . begin, start, like)

to do

(常可替换) doing

?Why not ? ?had better ? ? ? 7.? ? ? 动原 ?Will / would / Could you please? ? ? ? prefer to do rather than ?

8.介词+doing eg. 1)What/ How about doing 2)be good at doing 附Ⅳ——宾语从句与状语从句中的时态 1.状语从句中的时态: 主句

1 )一般将来时 2 )祈 使句 3)情态动词原形

时间、条件句 一般现在时 一般过去时

一般过去时

eg.1)I’ll call you as soon as he ______ (come) back. 2)He won’t go to bed unt

il he _________ (finish) his homework. 3)I’ll help you if I _____ (be) free tomorrow 2.宾语从句中的时态:

主句 一般现在时 宾语从句 一切时态 过去范畴的某一时态(一般 一般过去时 过去时;过去进行时;过去 完成时;过去将来时)

但当宾语从句是指客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象时,则只能用一般现在时。 eg.1)He said his father _________(come) back in two days. 2)The teacher said light ________(travel) faster than sound. 附Ⅴ——主谓一致 1.表“时间、距离、金钱、长度”的名词短语做主语时应看作一个整体,视为三单 eg. Two months is quite a long time. 2.people; police 形单实为复,作主为复 eg. The police are looking for the missing boy. 3.maths, news, physics 形复实为单,作主为单 4.family; class 看作整体时作主语为单数;看作整体中的各成员时则为复数。 eg. 1)My family is a big one. 2)My family are watching TV. 5.由 with, except, as well as 连接的两名词作主语,谓语由前者决定 eg. The teacher with his students is going to Beijing tomorrow. 6.由 neither…nor; either…or; not only…bout also 连接的两名词作主语,谓语由后者决定 eg. Neither he nor I am a teacher. 第 21 页 共 21 页 地址: 光华大道三段建信奥林匹克花园—商业街 3 楼 (七中实验对面) 涨分热线: 028—61707799

7.不定代词(something; anything; nothing; someone; anyone; everyone…)作主语为三单 Nobody knows it except me. 8.One of + 复名… 作主语为单数 eg. One of my friends is a computer engineer. 9.―the +姓的复数‖作主语为复数 eg. The Lius are watching TV now. 10.sheep; deer; fish 单复同形,注意区别作主语是单还是复 eg. 1)There are many sheep on the hill. 2)Milk ____ white, and sheep ______ white, too. (be 填空) 11.there be 结构中,如果有两个以上的名词作主语,则 be 应与最接近的那个名词一致。 (即:靠近原则)eg. 1)There ____a box and some pens on the desk. 2)There ____some pens and a box on the desk. 12. either, neither, each 作主语为三单 eg. Neither of the twins ______(like) drawing. 13.由两部分构成的事物名词(trousers, glasses, chopsticks)作主语为复数,但当前面有 pair 短语修饰时,则谓语 由 pair 的单复数来决定谓语。 eg.1)Where ____(be) my glasses? 2)That pair of trousers ____(be) Mr. Green’s 附Ⅵ——“短命”动词与“长命”动词之间的转化 buy—have ; borrow—keep ; die—be dead ; leave—be away (from); come back—be back; fall asleep—be asleep ; open—be open ; catch a cold—have a cold; go /get out—be out; arrive (reach / get to / come to) +地点—be in +地点;join—be in +集体(或 be + 成员) ; turn on—be on; turn off—be off ; get a letter from—have a letter from. end /finish—be over ; get up—be up ;

一、用所给动词的适当形式填空 1

.Mother ________ (watch) TV every evening. 2.We________(talk) when the teacher came in. 3.He ________(go) to Beijing two days ago. 4.He ________(leave) Chengdu in two days. 5.Look! The boy________(play) football on the playground. 6.My uncle ______(live) here for ten years. 7.He often helps the old woman _______ (carry) water. 8.Would you like to make a contribution to ________ (improve) our living conditions? 9.Don’t forget ________(turn) off the lights before you go out. 10.Please let the girls _____(go) first. 二、选择填空 ( )1.—Must I turn off the light now? ---No, you _______ A. needn’t B. mustn’t C. can’t ( )2.Our teacher told us the sun ____ in the east. A. rose B. rises C. is rising ( )3.He ___ back in a month.

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A. will come B. come C. came ( )4.I ___ him before. A. met B. had met C. have met ( )5.The teacher ____ to Japan this year. She’s now telling her pupils about it. A. went B. has been C. has gone ( )6.It ____ hard when I got home yesterday. A. rained B. is raining C. was raining ( )7.Why not ____ again? A. to try B. try C. trying ( )8.He has finished ____ the letter. A. writing B. to write C. wrote ( )9.It _____ every night. A. happens B. is happened C. happened ( )10.The policeman told the children ____ in the street.

九、被 动 语 态

英语的语态分主动语态和被动语态两种。主动语态的主语是动作的执行者;被动语态的主语是动作的承受 者。 eg. We use a knife for cutting (主动句). A knife is used for cutting (被动句)。 一、构成:be + 过去分词 eg. 1)The work is finished by him. 2)Chinese is spoken by people in China. 二、被动语态的时态 1.一般现在时:am/ is/ are + 过去分词 eg. English is spoken by Englishmen. 2.一般过去时:was/ were + 过去分词 eg. The machines were made in China. 3.一般将来时:will/shall/be going to be+过去分词 eg. A sports meeting will be held in our school next week. 4.现在完成时:have/ has been + 过去分词 eg. The work has been done by them. 5.现在进行时:am/ is/ are being + 过去分词。 eg. A new school is being built in our village. 6.过去进行时:was/ were being + 过去分词 eg. My TV set was being mended at that time. 综上所述:被动语态的时态只涉及 be 动词的变化(即:be 动词的各种时态) 另外注意以下几点: 1.含情态动词的被动语态: can / may / must / should + be + 过去分词 eg. He may be sent away from school. 2.带动词不定式的被动语态 eg. My bike needs to be mended. 3.在使用被动语态时,如需要指出动作执行者时,应用“by + 动作的执行者(宾格)” eg. He was called Mike by us

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4.不及

物动词无被动语态(take place/ happen ; last ; rise ; sink ; fall 等) eg. The accident was happened two days ago (改错) _________ 5.当宾语补足语是省 to 不定式时,在改作被动语态之后,应将省去的 to 还原。 eg.The boss made the workers work 12 hours. →The workers were made to work 12 hours. 6.注意短语动词的完整性(即:主动句的谓语动词若由 v + prep / adv 构成,变被动语态时,不能将这些介词、 副词遗漏。 eg. We must take care of the baby. →The baby must be taken care of. 练 习 题 ( )1.This factory has been____ for two years A. open B. to open C. opening D. opened ( )2.The light in the room ___ before you leave. A. must turn off B. will turn off C. are turned off D. must be turned off ( )3.The young trees ____ planted in spring. A. must B. have C. must be D. must are ( )4.Chinese ____ by Miss Wang three years ago. A. was taught B. is taught C. was teached D. were teach ( )5.Young trees ___ quite often. A. should water B. should be water C. should be watered D. should have watered ( )6.English ___ by many people in the world A. speaks B. speak C. are spoken D. is spoken ( )7.The old people ___ well in our country. A. is looked after B. are looked after C. looks after D. look for ( )8. Alice is ill. She ____ to hospital at once. A. is sent B. must be sent C. can send D. must send ( )9. The factory ____ in 1958. A. was built B. is built C. will be built D. built ( )10.Our teacher told us that the classroom _____ every day. A. should be cleaned B. should cleaned C. shall be cleaned D. must cleaned

十、状语从句 考试标准: 1. 能正确使用引导状语从句的连接词。 2. 掌握时间和条件状语从句中,一般现在时表示将来的用法。

(一)时间状语从句:由 when, while, before, after, since, as soon as, till / until 引导的从句 1)when 与 while

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“短命”动词 ?when ? ? “长命”动词 ?while ?

eg.1)I’ll tell her the good news _____he comes back. 2)Aunt Wang came in while we were watching TV

“短命”动词的否定式 ? until : 直到 ?? 才 ? 2) ? “长命”动词的肯定式 ? until : 到 ??为止 ?

3)since:自从??以来(since 从句常用一般过去时) 注意主句通常用现在完成时,但当主句表示一种状态,用一般现在时 eg.1)He has lived there since he came to China 2)It is two years since her mother died. (二)条件状语从句:由 if (如果)引导的从句 eg.I will go to the park if it ________ (not rain) tomorrow. 注意:条件状语从句与以下句型的转换 1)祈使句,and (then , or)+简单句 = If you … , you … eg.1)Use your head, then you’ll find a way. =If you use your head, you’ll find a way 2)Hurry up, or you’ll be late. =If you don’t hurry, you’ll be la

te. 2)without 与条件句的转化 eg. Man can’t live without water. =Man can’t live if there is no water. 注意以上两种状语从句的时态 主句

1 )一般将来时 2 )祈 使句 3)情态动词原形

时间、条件句 一般现在时 一般过去时

一般过去时

但 since 从句例外,应与现在完成时连用。 eg.1)I’ll call you as soon as he ______ (come) back. 2)He won’t go to bed until he _________ (finish) his homework. 3)I’ll help you if I _____ (be) free tomorrow 4)I ___________ (live) here since I came to China.

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(三)原因状语从句:由 because, since , for , as 引导的从句 eg. He didn’t go to school because he was ill. 注意:1)对 because 引导的从句提问用 why 2)因为(because), 所以(so)不能连用 eg. Because he was (A) ill, so (B) he didn’t (C) go to school (D) yesterday. (四)结果状语从句:由 so… that 引导的从句(so 后接形、副原级) eg. He ran (A) so faster (B) that I couldn’t catch up with (C) him. 注意:1) “so… that +否定句”与“too… to”的替换 eg.1)He is so young that he can’t go to school. = He is too young to go to school(主、从句主语相同) 2)He ran so fast that we couldn’t catch up with him. = He ran too fast for us to catch up with. (主、从句主语不同) 3)The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it = The box is too heavy for me to carry.(注意 carry 后省去宾语 it) 2) “so… that +从句”与“enough to”的替换 eg.1)He’s so strong that he can carry the box. = He’s strong enough to carry the box. 2)The question is so easy that I can answer it =The question is easy enough for me to answer ________ ________

( )1.We bought granny a present, ___ she didn’t like it. A. but B. and C. when ( )2.Be quick, ___ you’ll be late for the football match. A. so B. and C. or ( )3.You’ve done badly, ___ I can see you did your best. A. or B. but C. so ( )4.That was our first lesson, ___ she didn’t know all our names. A. for B. but C. so ( )5.They didn’t pass the ball often enough, ___ they didn’t play together very well. A. and B. yet C. when ( )6.It was raining at that time, ___ they couldn’t go out for walk. A. because B. or C. so ( )7.Mary couldn’t go to school, ___ she was very ill. A. for B. before C. though ( )8.Go straight along the road, ___ you’ll find the hospital at the end of it. A. since B. and C. when ( )9.Take this medicine , ___ you will yet well soon. A. and B. but C. so ( )10.Either she or I ___ him at the airport. A. is to meet B. am to meet C. are to meet

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十一、宾语从句:充当宾语的句子

考试标准:

掌握宾语从句的语序、时

态呼应及连接词的用法。

对宾语从句应注意以下三要素: 1. 引导词 2. 语序 3. 时态 1. 引导词 1)that 引导一般疑问句意义的宾从(that 可省) eg. He says (that) the boy is a lilltle weak in Chinese. 2)疑问词引导特殊疑问句意义的宾从 eg. ①.Do you know who will give us a talk? ②.I don’t know whose book that is. ③.Could you please tell which gate we have to go to? ④.I wonder when he will come back. 注意:此类宾从的主语与主句的主语(或宾语)相同时,可替换为“疑问词 + to do” eg. ①.I haven’t decided where I will go =I haven’t decided where to go ②.He asked me what I bought = He asked me what to buy. 类似短语:how to do _____what to say_____ what to do _____where to go____ 3)if/whether(是否)引导一般疑问句意义的宾从 eg. ①.―Do you like this book?‖ she asked me. =She asked me ___ I liked this book. ②.―Have you visited the Great Wall?‖ Could you tell me? =Could you tell me _____ you have visited the Great Wall? 注意以下几点: ⅰ.区别 if 当作“是否” ,还是“如果” eg. I don’t know if he ______ (come)if it ______(rain) tomorrow. ⅱ.用 whether 不用 if 的几种情况 1)后接不定式 eg. I can’t decide whether to go to Beijing. 2)与 or / or not 连用

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eg. I want to know whether you will go to the park or not. 3)在句首时 eg. Whether this is true or not, I can’t say. 4)whether 还可以引导让步状语从句,意为“不管,无论” eg. Whether it rains or not, we are going to the park tomorrow. 2.语序:宾从用陈述句语序 eg. 1)I don’t (A) know whether (B) will he (C) come (D) tomorrow. 2)He asks (A) me when (B) will you (C) come back (D). _____________ _____________

3)Could you tell (A) how many players (B) are there (C) in (D) a football team? ________ 3.时态

主句 一般现在时 宾语从句 一切时态 过去范畴的某一时态(一般 一般过去时 过去时;过去进行时;过去 完成时;过去将来时)

?she went to school every day. ?she goes to school every day. ? ? 但当宾语从句是指客观 eg.1) She says(that)?she has been ill for five days. 2) She said (that)?she had been ill for five days. ?she would com ethe next day. ?she will com etom orrow . ? ?

事实、普遍真理、自然现象时,则只能用一般现在时。 eg. She said (that) the sun rises in the east.

( )1.Alice wanted to know ____ her grandma liked the dog. A. that B. if C. which D. what ( )2.Can you tell us ____ ? A. where have you gone B. where have you gone C. where you have been D. where have you been ( )3.Do you still remember ____ ? A. that he said B. what he said C. did he say that D. what did he say ( )4.The weather here changes very often and we can’t tell ____ it will be l

ike tomorrow. A. that B. how C. what D. whether ( )5.—What did the scientist say? ---He said he wondered if ____into space by spaceship one day. A. he had to fly B. he could fly C. can he fly D. could he fly ( )6.Do you know___from Wuhan to Xi’an ? A. how far it is B. how far is it

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C. how long it is D. how long is it ( )7.Could you tell me ____? A. where do you live B. who you are waiting for C. who were you waiting for D. where you live in ( )8.—Is the lake there beautiful? -– This photo will show you ____. A. how does it look like B. what does it look like C. how it looks like D. what it looks like ( )9. I don’t know ____ bought the present for me. Is it Jack? A. which B. who C. whose D. what ( )10.Could you show us ____ a bike ? A. how to mend B. what to buy C. where to go D. how many to buy

十二、定语从句:

在句中作定语的句子,它修饰一个名词或代词,这个被修饰的名词、代词叫做先行词。

考试标准: 正确使用关系代词 who,which,that 引导的定语从句。

一、引导词(关系词) :位于从句与先行词之间,起连接作用,同时在从句中充当一定的成分。先行词分两类: 1.关系代词 who(作主语), whom(作宾语), whose(作定语), which(作主语、宾语), that(作主语、宾语). 2.关系副词 when, where, why. 注意:1.如果关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略. eg. The trees (that) we have planted grow well. 2.关系代词作宾语时,可放在介词后。 但当关系代词是 that 时,则不能放在介词后。eg. This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived = This is the house which Lu Xun once lived in. =This is the house that Lu Xun once lived in 二、如何选用引导词:一般情况引导词的选用是受先行词决定的——先行词是人时用 that , who , whom , whose; 先行词是物时用 that , which; 先行词是时间、地点时用 when , where. eg. 1)The boy who / that is standing under the tree is Jim. 站在树下的那个男孩时 Jim. 2)Do you know the girl whose mother is a driver? 你认识那个妈妈是司机的女孩吗? 3)Have you been to the factory where your father works? 你去过你爸爸工作的工厂吗? 但注意区别 who / that (指人);which / that (指物) 1.修饰人只用 who 的情况: a. 先行词是 one , ones , anyone , those 时。 b. there be 句型中修饰名词时。 c. 先行词后有一个较长的定语。 eg.1)Anyone who hasn’t handed in his home- work should stay after school. 没交作业的任何人放学后都要留下。 2)There is a girl who wants to see you at the school gate. 校门口有位想见你的女孩。 3)Did you see the man in the park yesterday afternoon who wore a red shirt? 昨天下午在公园你见过那个穿红衬 衫的人吗? 2

.修饰人或物只用 that 的情况:

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a. 先行词为指物的不定代词 all , much , little, few , everything , something , anything , nothing b.先行词前有最高级、序数词及 last , only , very , all , no 时 c. 先行词既有人,又有物时 d. 主句是 who / which 引导的特殊疑问句,而先行词又指人或物时。 eg.1)Is there anything that I can do for you? 有让我做的事吗? 2)He is the only one that can help us at the moment. 他是现在能帮助我们的唯一的人。 3)He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. 他谈论着他拜访过的老师和参观过的学校。 4)Which is the machine that we used last Sunday? 我们上周星期天用过的机器是哪一台? 3.修饰物只用 which 的情况: a. 先行词在定语从句中作介词的宾语时 b. 先行词为 that 时 eg.1)This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived . 这就是鲁迅以前住过的房子。 2)What’s that which you are holding in your arms? 你抱着的那个是什么? *三、定语从句可简化为短语 1.定语从句为被动语态时可简化为过去分词短语;定语从句为现在进行时可简化为现在分词短语。 2.定语从句的谓语(be)后是介词短语,可简化为介词短语作定语。 3.定语从句的谓语动词含情态动词,可简化为不定式。 eg.1)I bought a book that was written by Lu Xun. = I bought a book written by Lu Xun. 2)Tell the children who are playing there not to do that. = Tell the children playing there not to do that. 3)The book that is on the table is mine. = The book on the table is mine. 4) We have nothing that we should fear. = We have nothing to fear.

( )1.The man ____ was a friend of mine. A. that you just talked to B. whom you just talked to him C. who you just talked to him D. which you just talked to ( )2.This is the best film ____has been shown this year. A. who B. that C. which D. when ( )3.Finally, the thief handed everything ____ he had stolen to the police. A. which B. what C. that D. in where ( )4.Mr. Li told us the stones and writers ____ interested him A. what B. who C. that D. which ( )5.My father still remembers the day ___ he joined the army. A. when B. which C. to which D. from which ( )6.I’ll never forget the summer holidays ____ we spent together. A. when B. in which C. which D. how ( )7—Does the teacher know everybody _______ planted the trees? —Yes, he does.

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A. which B. whose C. where D. who ( )8.The letter _______ I received from him yesterday is very important. A. who B. where C. what D. that ( )9.I hate people _______ talk much but do little. A. whose B. whom C. which D. who ( )10.—Who is t

he man _______ was talking to our English teacher? —Oh! It’s Mr Baker, our maths teacher. A. he B. that C. whom D. which

十三、简单句的五种句型

1.主语 + 不及物动词(主、谓结构)

eg. He is working.

2.主语+ 及物动词 + 宾语(主、谓、宾结构)

eg. We study English every day.

3.主语+ 连系动词 + 表语(主、系、表结构)

eg. Trees turn green. 常见的连系动词有:be ; become ; get ; turn ; feel ; look(看起来);smell(闻起来); sound(听起来);taste(尝起来); seem(似乎). 特别注意:形容词常作表语

4.主语 + 及物动词 + 间宾(人)+ 直宾(物) =主语+ 及物动词 + 直宾(物)+ to / for + 间宾(人)

常用的此类动词有:give ; pass ; show ; lend ; buy. 但 buy 与 for 连用 eg.1)I gave him a book. = I gave a book to him. 2)My mother bought me a pen yesterday. = My mother bought a pen for me.

5.主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾补

注意作宾补的词:1)名词(指宾语是谁/什么) ;2)形容词;3)不定式;4)动词的 ing 形式。 eg.1)We call him Jim. 2)We must keep the window open. 3)He told me to wash the plates. 4)I saw a thief going into your room. 特别注意: 1)动词不定式作宾补 A: ask / want / tell sb to do sth.

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其否定式为:ask/want/tell sb not to do sth 2)省 to 不定式作宾补,即: (l, m, n; 3h; 2 看; 1f) sb do sth l—let, m—make, n—notice; 3h—hear, have , help; 2 看—see, watch; 1f—feel. eg.1)The boss made the workers work 12 hours every day. 2)I often hear him sing. 2)区别省 to 不定式作宾补与动词 ing 形式作宾补. hear / see sb do: 听见/看见某人做了某事 hear / see sb doing: 听见/看见某人在做某事

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