名词性从句的基本形式

http://www.sina.com.cn 2008年03月15日 16:21 新东方

考点86: 名词性从句的基本形式

名词性从句通常以“引导词+正常陈述句语序”的基本形式出现, 有时会省略引导词,

例如:

Where the meeting is to be held has not been decided. 在哪里开会还没决定。(引

导词where 在正常陈述句语序的主语从句中作地点状语)

Whether he will attend the party is not known.他是否要来参加聚会还不知道。(引导词whether 在正常的陈述句语序的主语从句中不充当任何具体成分, 只起引导作用) [考题1] These shoes look very good. I wonder ____. (2006上海春)

A. how much cost they are B. how much do they cost

C. how much they cost D. how much are they cost

[答案] C

[解析] cost表示价格通常用主动形式, wonder的宾语从句应在how much之后采取

陈述句的形式而不是倒装句的形式, 据此可以选出C。

[考题2] Having checked the doors were closed, and ____ all the lights were

off, the boy opened the door to his bedroom. (2007湖南)

A. why B. that C. when D. where

[答案] B

[解析] “all the lights were off ”是可以单独成句、 正常语序的陈述句, 但是由于之后的“the boy opened the door to his bedroom”已经构成整个句子中的主句、 其前面的所有成分为主句的状语, 因此下划线处应引导一个名词性从句充当前面checked的宾语。本题选择that引导名词性从句是因为why、 when、 where引导名词性从句时需要

在从句中充当状语, 而that引导名词性从句时不充当从句中的特定成分。 [考题3] Can you make sure ____ the gold ring? (1990)

A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put

C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处是充当宾语的名词性从句, 应采用“引导词+正常陈述句语序”的

基本形式。

[考题4] As soon as he comes back, I’ll tell him when ____ and see him. (2005

北京)

A. you will come B. will you come

C. you come D. do you come

[答案] A

[解析] 下划线处是when引导的宾语从句的一部分, 应采用正常陈述句的语序。 [考题5] Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see ____. (2000上海)

A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is

[答案] D

[解析] 下划线处是充当see的宾语的名词性从句, 应采用“引导词+正常陈述句语

序”的基本形式, 又因为谈到不确定的人时通常用it指代, 所以本题应选D。

考点87: 名词性从句引导词的基本用法

下表对高考中常见的名词性从句的引导词进行了总结:

名词性从句的引导词引导词是否在名词性从句中充当成分的情况

连接代词: what, which, who, whom, whose

连接副词: when, where, why, how

what, which在从句中作主语、 宾语、 表语或定语; who在从句中作主语、 表语; whom在从句中作宾语; whose在从句中作定语; when, where, why, how在从句中分别作时间

状语、 地点状语、 原因状语、 方式状语

连词that否

连词whether, if否

名词性从句的引导词在高考中的基本用法详见下面的总结:

1. 引导特殊疑问句的疑问词在转为引导名词性从句时, 即成为连接代词(主要包括what, which, who, whom, whose)或者连接副词(主要包括when, where, why, how)。注意体会如下例句: Choose which you like best. 选你最喜欢的。// Who has taken away my bag is unknown. 谁拿走了我的包还不知道。// Have you decided whom you are to nominate

as your candidate? 你们是否已经决定提名谁做候选人了?// He asked when Mr. Gilbert would be allowed to go home. 他问什么时候可以允许吉尔伯特先生回家。// Where we can look up his address is still a problem. 我们在哪儿可以查到他的地址还是个难题。// Why he did that wasn’t quite clear. 他为什么做那件事还不十分清楚。// How they will solve the serious problem has not been decided. 他们将怎样解决这个严重问题还没有

决定。

以下两种特殊情况要给予特别关注:

(1) what作连接代词引导的名词性从句既可以表示一个问“什么???”的问题, 也可以表示相当于“名词/代词+关系代词引导的定语从句”结构的意思, 这种特殊用法在语法上被称作“关系代词型的what”, 注意体会如下例句:He is not what (=the person that) he was a few years ago. 他不是几年前的他了。// This is what (=the place that) they call Salt Lake City. 这就是他们称作盐湖城的地方。// What (=the place that) is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. 现在的北部撒哈拉沙漠曾是一个文明世界。// Our income is now double what (=the income that) it was ten years ago. 我们现在的收入是十年前的两倍。// The color of the flower is different from what (=the

color that) it was in the morning. 花朵(现在的)颜色与它早上的颜色不同。

(2) 带’ever后缀的疑问词除引导让步状语从句之外, 还可以引导名词性从句(“no matter+疑问词”的结构只能引导让步状语从句, 不可以引导名词性从句), 注意体会以下例句: Whoever wants to see this film can go with us tonight.无论谁想看这部电影, 今晚都可以和我们一起去。// You can give the ticket to whomever you like. 你可以把票给任何你想给的人。// All the books are here. You may borrow whichever (book) you like. 所有的书都在这儿, 你愿借哪本就借哪本。// I’ll do whatever you ask me

to do. 你叫我做什么, 我就做什么。

2. that引导名词性从句时后面接完整的陈述句, that只起引导名词性从句的作用而不充当该名词性从句中的具体成分; 引导宾语从句时that常可省略, 但引导主语从句、 表

语从句、 同位语从句时that通常不被省略。例如:

She hoped (that) he would arrive on time. 她希望他按时到达。(宾语从句) That she was chosen made us very happy. 她被选中了让我们很开心。(主语从句) I have the belief that I will succeed. 我怀有必胜的信念。(同位语从句) that, what引导名词性从句的区别在于: that在其引导的名词性从句中不充当任何成分, 在有的情况下可以省略; what需要在其引导的名词性从句中充当主语、 宾语、 表

语或者定语, 而且引导名词性从句的what在任何情况下都不能省略。例如:

That he will succeed is obvious. 显然, 他会成功。(引导主语从句的that不在其

中充当具体的句子成分)

What she told me is not true. 她所告诉我的都不是真的。(what在其引导的主语从

句中作宾语)

3. whether与if均可以引导表示“是否”之意的名词性从句, 且whether与if均不在这种名词性从句中充当具体的句子成分。在引导宾语从句时whether与if一般可以互换, 但在引导主语从句、 表语从句、 同位语从句、 介词后的宾语从句、 放于句首的宾语从句或者名词性从句中包含or (not) 时通常只能用whether作引导词。注意体会下列例句: I don’t know if/whether I can help you. 我不知道我能否帮助你。(宾语从句)// Whether we can really help you, I don’t know yet. 我们是否真的能帮助你, 我还不知道。(位于句首的宾语从句)// The teacher worried about whether he had hurt the girl’s feelings. 老师为是否伤害了那女孩的感情而担心。(介词后的宾语从句)// The question is whether they can cooperate with us. 问题是他们能否与我们合作。(表语从句)// The question whether he should come himself or send a substitute must be decided upon. 他该亲自来还是派人替他来, 这个问题必须定下来。(同位语从句)// The little girl asked her father whether she should go to the party or not. 那女孩问她的父亲她应不应该

参加这个晚会。(包含or not的宾语从句)

注意: 肯定形式的doubt后面通常接whether/if引导的宾语从句, 否定形式的doubt后面通常接that引导的宾语从句, 例如: I doubt whether it’s true. 我怀疑它是否是真实的。// I doubt if that was what he wanted. 我怀疑那是否是他所想要的。// I don’t doubt that you are honest. 我不怀疑你的诚实。// She never doubted for a moment that

she was right. 她对自己是正确的这一点从不怀疑。

[考题1] — Could you do me a favor?

— It depends on ____ it is. (2006北京)

A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处的引导词引导on后的宾语从句, 并且在该宾语从句中充当表语, 表

示疑问句“What is it? (你要我帮的忙是什么?)”的含义。注意: 题干中没有用

“whatever” 进行强调的必要。

[考题2] — I think it’s going to be a big problem.

— Yes, it could be.

— I wonder ____ we can do about it. (2002北京春)

A. if B. how C. what D. that

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处的引导词引导wonder后的宾语从句并且在该宾语从句中充当do的宾语, if, that引导名词性从句时都不充当名词性从句中的句子成分, how引导名词性从句时充当名词性从句中的方式状语, 因此应排除A、 B、 D而选出C。本题中what we can do about it可以理解为对应于疑问句“What can we do about it?”的名词性从句, what引导的这种名词性从句跟其他疑问词形式的引导词所引导的名词性从句的含义相近。 [考题3] You can only be sure of ____ you have at present: you cannot be sure

of something ____ you might get in the future. (2007安徽)

A. that; what B. what; 不填 C. which; that D. 不填; that

[答案] B

[解析] 第一个下划线处应填入一个可以引导of的宾语从句泛指“你现在所拥有的东西”且在该宾语从句内部充当have的宾语的词, 这样的引导词只能是what, 由此可以直

接排除选项A、 C、 D而选出B。

[考题4] ____ we can’t get seems better than ____ we have. (1996)

A. What; what B. What; that C. That; that D. That; what

[答案] A

[解析] 名词性从句what we can’t get和what we have中what都充当宾语, 都属于关系代词型的what, 本身不表示疑问而表示泛指相关的事物; “what we can’t get”相当于包含定语从句的“things that we can’t get”, “what we have”相当于包含定

语从句的“things that we have”。

[考题5] It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants.

(1997)

A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever

[答案] B

[解析] whatever在这里的用法跟关系代词型的what一样, 其引导的名词性从句

“whatever he or she wants”泛指一个孩子想要的任何东西。

[考题6] It was a matter of ____ would take the position. (1998上海)

A. who B. whoever C. whom D. whomever

[答案] A

[解析] 下划线处的引导词所引导的名词性从句充当介词of的宾语, 在其引导的宾语从句内部充当的是主语(通常用who指代)而不是宾语(通常用whom指代), 而且题干中没

有提供强调“任何人”的语境, 因此应填入引导词who。

[考题7] Could I speak to ____ is in charge of International Sales, please?

(2007山东)

A. anyone B. someone C. whoever D. no matter who

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处引导speak to之后的宾语从句, 表示“(负责国际销售的)任何人”,

四个选项中只有whoever适合。

[考题8] Mary wrote an article on ____ the team had failed to win the game.

(2005)

A. why B. what C. who D. that

[答案] A

[解析] 下划线处引导的名词性从句属于介词on的宾语, 在该名词性从句中引导词

充当原因状语, 所以应选A。

[考题9] Please remind me ____ he said he was going. I may be in time to see

him off. (2006)

A. where B. when C. how D. what

[答案] B

[解析] 题干中所有句子都围绕时间展开, 因此应填入表示时间的when引导remind

的直接宾语。

[考题10] Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates

will be admitted into universities. (上海2000)

A. while B. that C. when D. as

[答案] B

[解析] 陈述客观情况的名词性从句的引导词之后是完整的陈述句, 引导词本身不充当该名词性从句中具体的句子成分, 有这样用法的引导词只能是that。本题下划线处引导了information的同位语从句(为避免头重脚轻, 本句中information的同位语从句与

information之间被谓语动词部分隔开)。

[考题11] The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at ____ I

thought was a dangerous speed. (2004上海春)

A. as B. which C. what D. that

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处的引导词引导介词at的宾语从句, 该引导词在at的宾语从句中所包含的又一个宾语从句(充当think的宾语)里充当主语, 特指说话人的兄弟驾车的速度, 四个选项中只有关系代词型的引导词what具有这样的用法。注意: 本题中at的宾语从句中又包含一个宾语从句, 总共出现了两个宾语从句, 其中第二个宾语从句(I thought之

后的宾语从句)的引导词that被省略了。

[考题12] Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and ____

it is rough or smooth. (2005天津)

A. 不填 B. whether C. how D. what

[答案] B

[解析] 题干中的or意味着下划线处需要表示“是否”的含义。

[考题13] ____ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national

championships. (2006山东)

A. No matter what B. No matter which

C. Whatever D. Whichever

[答案] D

[解析] 下划线处引导全句的主语, 因此不能选用只能引导让步状语从句的选项A、 B; 下划线处表示“任何一支(获胜的球队)”之意, 用which的相关形式更为合适, 因此

进一步排除C而选出D。

考点88: 主语从句的基本用法

在句中作主语的名词性从句称为主语从句, 主语从句所对应的谓语动词通常用第三人称单数的形式。为了整个句子的平衡, 主语从句经常后置, 并用it充当形式主语(此时, that引导的主语从句若不放在句首, 可以省略引导词that)。例如: What she did is not yet known. 她干了什么尚不清楚。// Whoever comes is welcome. 不论谁来都欢迎。// It is a pity (that) we haven’t contacted for ages. 很遗憾, 我们几年没联系了。// It has not been decided where the meeting is to be held. 在哪里开会还没决定。// It

doesn’t matter whether she will come or not. 她是否来这无关紧要。

注意: 不要混淆it 作形式主语指代主语从句与it引导强调句型的情况: it作形式主语代替主语从句主要是为了平衡句子结构, 主语从句的连接词没有变化; it引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调, 无论强调的是什么成分, 都可用连词that(被强调部分指人时也可用who/whom) // 区分it 作形式主语指代主语从句与it引导强调句型的有效技巧是: 将“It be ... that ...”中的it be和that去掉后, 句子仍然成立的是强调句, 句子不能成立的是that引导的主语从句。例如: It was my suggestion that made him confident of success. 正是我的建议使他对成功有了自信。 去掉it be和that后可以构成完整的强调句型的原型“My suggestion made him confident of

success.”, 因此本句属于强调句。

It is my suggestion that he needs more practice. 他需要更多的练习是我的建议。

去掉it be和that后本句讲不通, 因此本句属于主语从句。

[考题1] ____ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services.

(2006辽宁)

A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever

[答案] A

[解析] 题干中的主语从句特指“使得这家商店与众不同的事物”, 而且没有强调“使

得这家商店与众不同的任何事物”之意, 应选用what引导主语从句。

[考题2] ____ fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural

differences from one aspect. (2002上海春)

A. What B. That C. This D. Which

[答案] B

[解析] 陈述客观情况的名词性从句的引导词之后是完整的陈述句, 引导词本身不充

当该名词性从句中具体的句子成分, 有这样用法的引导词只能是that。

[考题3] ____ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. (1996)

A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where

[答案] B

[解析] 下划线处的引导词之后接了一个完整的陈述句, 但整个主语从句不是客观陈述某种情况而是要表示“是否”的意思, 应选用引导词whether。注意: 表示“是否”的

名词性从句的引导词if不能用于引导主语从句。

[考题4] It is pretty well understood ____ controls the flow of carbon dioxide

in and out the atmosphere today. (2003上海)

A. that B. when C. what D. how

[答案] C

[解析] 本题下划线处引导的是一个放在句末的主语从句(被句首的形式主语it所指代)。在该主语从句中引导词要作主语, 四个选项中只有what可以充当名词性从句的主语。 [考题5] It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning gray. (1992)

A. while B. that C. if D. for

[答案] B

[解析] 本题下划线处引导的是一个放在句末的主语从句(被句首的形式主语it所指代)。陈述客观情况的名词性从句的引导词之后是完整的陈述句, 引导词本身不充当该名词

性从句中具体的句子成分, 有这样用法的引导词只能是that。

[考题6] It is none of year business ____ other people think about you. Believe

yourself. (2007福建)

A. how B. what C. which D. when

[答案] B

[解析] 下划线处引导主语从句表示“其他人如何想你”, 在该主语从句中充当think的宾语, 四个选项中只能选择what做引导词。题干中what引导的主语从句放在句末、 由

句首的形式主语it所指代。

考点89: 表语从句的基本用法

名词性从句在be等系动词后作表语时被称为表语从句, 例如: The problem is how we can get the things we need.问题是我们怎样能弄到我们需要的东西。(how 在表语从句中充当方式状语)// The scissors are not what I need. 这把剪刀不是我所需要的。(what 在表语从句中充当宾语)// What I told him was that I would find him a good play. 我告诉他的是我会给他找个好剧本。(what在主语从句中作直接宾语, that作为表语从句的引导词在该表语从句中不充当句子成分, 不能省略)// That is what I want to tell you.那就是我想要对你讲的。(what在表语从句中充当直接宾语)// That is why she failed to

pass the exam. 那就是她考试不及格的原因。(why 在表语从句中充当原因状语) 注意: “That is why...”是常用句型, 意为“这就是??的原因/因此??”, 其中why引导的名词性从句在句中作表语, 该句型通常用于针对前面已经说明过的原因进行总结, 又如: That is why you see this old woman before you know, Jeanne. 珍妮,

这就是现在这个老太婆出现在你面前的原因。(前文提到Jeanne对老妇人显得苍老憔悴深感诧异, 说话人对她讲述了其中的原因之后,用这一句来进行概括)。// That is why I came.

这就是我来的原因。

下面是两个与“That is why...”形式相似的结构, 它们与“That is why...”结构

之间的关系要能够辨析清楚:

(1)“That is why...”与“That is the reason why...”同义, 只不过从语法结构上讲, “That is the reason why...”中why引导的是—个定语从句, 将其中的the reason

去掉则与“That is why...”结构一样, 例如:

That is (the reason) why I cannot agree. 这就是我不能同意的理由。

(2)“That is because...”句型中从属连词because引导的名词性从句在此作表语, 这也是个常用句型, 意为“这就是为什么??/因为??”。“That is because...”与“That is why...”之间的不同在于“That is because...”指原因或理由, “That is

why...”则指由于各种原因所造成的后果, 例如:

He did not see the film last night. That is because he had to help his little sister with her homework.昨天晚上他没有去看电影, 那是因为他得帮助他的妹妹做作业。

(第一句话说明结果, 第二句话说明原因)

He had seen the film before. That is why he did not see it last night.他以前曾看过那部电影, 因此他昨天晚上没有去看。(第一句话说明原因, 第二句话说明结果) [考题1] The traditional view is ____ we sleep because our brain is

“programmed” to make us do so. (2007上海)

A. when B. why C. whether D. that

[答案] D

[解析] 下划线处之后是包含一个原因状语从句的表语从句, 如果看不出它是充当整个句子结构的表语从句将难以把握整个句子的意思。因此, 应选择可引导名词性从句且不

充当任何成分的that。

[考题2] You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ____ I disagree.

(2004)

A. why B. where C. what D. how

[答案] B

[解析] 下划线处的引导词引导系动词is后的表语从句并在该表语从句中充当地点状语(“disagree”属于不及物动词, “I disagree”本身是完整的主谓结构), 下划线应填

入引导词where, 表语从句“where I disagree”的意思是“我不同意之处、 我不同意的

地方”。

[考题3] — I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

— Is that ____ you had a few days off? (1999)

A. why B. when C. what D. where

[答案] A

[解析] 下划线处的引导词引导与系动词is连用的表语从句并在该表语从句中充当原因状语, 下划线应填入表示“因此??”(指因某种原因所造成的结果)的引导词why。 [考题4] ____ she couldn’t understand was ____ fewer and fewer students showed

interest in her lessons. (2000上海)

A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that

[答案] A

[解析] 第一个下划线处的引导词引导主语从句并在该主语从句中充当宾语, 特指她

所不理解的事情, 应填入关系代词型的引导词what; 第二个下划线处表示“因此??”(指因某种原因所造成的后果, 由why引导对应的名词性从句)而不是“为什么??”(指原因、 理由, 由because引导对应的名词性从句), 应填入引导词why。 [考题5] ____ made the school proud was ____ more than 90% of the students

had been admitted to key universities. (2003上海春)

A. What; because B. What; that

C. That; what D. That; because

[答案] B

[解析] 第一个下划线处的引导词引导主语从句并在该主语从句中充当主语, 特指令校方骄傲的事情, 应选用关系代词型的引导词what; 第二个下划线处引导表语从句表示

原因、 理由, 应由that引导对应的名词性从句。

[考题6] — Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game?

— Oh, that’s ____. (2003北京春)

A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about

C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited

[答案] A

[解析] A选项的意思是“令我感觉激动的事物”; B选项的意思是“我觉得激动的任何事物”; C选项的意思是“我对它感觉的方式”; D选项的意思是“令我感觉激动的

时间”。四个选项中A最适合跟代表“game”的主语that对应, 充当表语从句。

考点90: 宾语从句的基本用法

名词性从句在复合句中作谓语动词、 非谓语动词、 介词的宾语时被称为宾语从句。高

考中常见的宾语从句包括以下几种情况:

1. that引导的宾语从句(that经常可以被省略), 例如:

His mother said (that) Saul Grant was a music critic. 他母亲说索尔?格兰特是

个音乐评论家。

把握that引导的宾语从句要注意以下特殊情况:

(1) 宾语从句(通常是由that引导的宾语从句)常置于句末并用it作形式宾语。例如: We think it important that Mary should tell the truth. 我们认为玛丽说出实情很重要。// I have made it clear that we’ll sign the contract with your company. 我

已讲得很清楚: 我方将与贵公司签订这个合约。

(2) that 从句作介词宾语只用于except that和in that结构。例如: His report is correct except that some details are omitted. 除了有些细节未提到之外, 他的报道是正确的。// Criticism and self’criticism is necessary in that it helps us to correct

our mistakes. 批评和自我批评是必要的, 因为它能帮助我们改正错误。

(3) allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive等及物动词后可以接不定式或动名词作宾语, 但不可以接that引导

的宾语从句。例如:

I admire their winning the match. (√)

I admire that they won the match. (?菖)

2. 与疑问词形式相同的连词引导的宾语从句, 这包括:

(1) 动词(+间接宾语)+与疑问词形式相同的连词引导的宾语从句。常用于这种句型的动词有see, know, wonder, show, ask, tell, decide, find out, imagine等。例如: Tell me how you went to school. 告诉我你怎么去上学的。// John wondered why he was wanted by the police, but he went to the station yesterday. 约翰不知道为什么警察局要他

去, 但昨天他还是去了。

(2) 介词+与疑问词形式相同的连词引导的宾语从句。例如: I am not interested in what he is doing. 我对他做的事不感兴趣。// He will write a book on how Chinese people

learn English. 他将写一本中国人如何学英语的书。

(3) be+形容词+与疑问词形式相同的连词引导的宾语从句(这种结构中的“be+形容词”可以被视为发挥着及物动词的作用, 其后的从句具有宾语从句的性质), 例如: Are you certain that you’ll get there in time? 你有把握及时赶到那里吗?// He was disappointed that he failed to get the master degree. 他很失望没有获得硕士学位。

3. whether与if引导宾语从句时一般可以互换, 例如: The boss asked me whether/if

she was qualified for the task. 老板问我她是否胜任这项任务。

[考题1] With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat,

feeling pleased ____ he was a man of action. (2006湖南)

A. which B. that C. what D. whether

[答案] B

[解析] feeling pleased后的宾语从句中基本成分完整, 可以构成独立的陈述句,

应选that引导该宾语从句。

[考题2] I was surprised by her words, which made me recognize ____ silly

mistakes I had made. (2005湖南)

A. what B. that C. how D. which

[答案] A

[解析] 题干句意为: 我对她的话很吃惊, 它迫使我承认我犯了多么愚蠢的错误。下划线处应引导recognize的宾语从句表感叹, 应选用what与名词silly mistakes连用

表感叹。

[考题3] I just wonder ____ that makes him so excited. (2006山东)

A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is

[答案] D

[解析] 由于“that makes him so excited”的存在, 四个选项中只有选项D适合填入下划线处充当wonder的宾语从句。“what it is that makes him so excited”中it是形式主语, 真正的主语是that引导的主语从句, 意为“使他如此激动的是什么”。 [考题4] The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ____ he thought was not enough.

(2005山东)

A. where B. how C. what D. which

[答案] C

[解析] 本题考查了引导名词性从句的连词的用法。四个选项中只有what和which可以在从句中充当主语,而which 在名词从句中意为“哪一个”,因此在本题中意思不对,

故选C。

[考题5] When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the

golden rule: Always give the monkey exactly ____ he wants. (2002上海春)

A. what B. which C. when D. that

[答案] A

[解析] “Always give the monkey exactly what he wants. ”是采用祈使语气的谚语, 意思是“永远都要给别人他确实想要的东西。”。what hewants作其中的宾语, 泛

指主语he所想要的东西。

[考题6] The old lady’s hand shook frequently. She explained to her doctor ____ this shaking had begun half a year before, and ______, only because of this,

she had been forced to give up her job. (2005重庆)

A. when; how B. how; when C. how; how D. why; why

[答案] C

[解析] 题干意为: 这位老妇人的手经常颤抖, 她向医生解释了这种颤抖如何从半年前开始以及她如何因此而被迫放弃了工作。两个下划线处引导的宾语从句都是表示“方

式”而不是时间或原因, 因此都应填入how。

[考题7] We cannot figure out ____ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals

are dying out. (2004)

A. that B. as C. why D. when

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处的引导词引导主句figure out之后的宾语从句, 并在宾语从句中充当原因状语(理解成充当时间状语或者不充当任何句子成分的情况语法上没有错, 但是不

符合实际, 因为大量物种濒临灭绝是众所周知的现状), 应填入引导词why。

[考题8] We haven’t settled the question of ____ it is necessary for him to

study abroad. (2006江苏)

A. if B. where C. whether D. that

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处引导介词of的宾语从句, 与question相呼应, 该宾语从句要表示出“(他)是否(有必要出国留学)”的含义, 四个选项中只有whether可以表示出“是

否”的含义。

考点91: 同位语从句的基本用法

在复合句主句中名词性成分之后与该名词性成分并列, 补充说明该名词性成分的有关情况的名词性从句, 被称为同位语从句。同位语从句的先行词通常为answer, hope, fact, truth, belief, news, idea, promise, information, conclusion, order, suggestion, problem, question, thought, report, belief, decision, doubt, opinion, theory等抽象名词。例如: The news that his heath is failing made us sad. 他健康状况不佳的消息使我们很难过。// I have no idea where they are spending their holidays. 我不知道他们在哪里度假。// The question who should do the work requires consideration.谁该干这项工作的问题需要考虑。// There is no doubt that he will come here again.他会再来这里, 这是毫无疑问的。// He was tortured by the doubt whether he would accept

their presents.他被是否接受他们的礼物这个疑虑所折磨着。

掌握同位语从句的用法要注意以下两个问题:

1. 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面, 而是被别的词隔开, 以使得

整个句子的结构显得平衡。例如:

He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 他从玛丽那里获知了运动会被推迟的消息。// Word came that Hussein had been captured. 侯赛因已

被捕的消息传来。

2. 同位语从句和定语从句结构相似, 通常位于某一名词或代词后面, 但两者存在明显区别: 同位语从句对名词性成分加以补充说明, 是该名词性成分具体内容的体现(相当于名词的作用)。 that引导的同位语从句中引导词that不在该同位语从句中充当句子成分, 但不能被省略, 同位语从句还可以用whether、 how等连词引导(定语从句则不能)。定语从句对先行词加以限制或修饰、 说明先行词的性质或特征(相当于形容词的作用), 定语从句的引导词均在该定语从句中充当特定的句子成分(that在其引导的限定性定语从句中充当主语、 宾语或者表语, 充当定语从句中宾语的that经常可被省略)。注意体会以下四组

例句:

(1) 第一组例句:

① We can’t solve the problem how we can travel faster than light.我们解决

不了如何才能超过光的速度这个问题。

(how引导的从句表示其前面的名词the problem的具体内容, 属于同位语从句)

② I can’t remember the problem that they have.我记不得他们的问题了。 (引导词that就是that引导的从句中have的宾语, the problem的具体内容也没有

得到说明, 故本句中that引导的从句是修饰problem的定语从句)

(2) 第二组例句:

① I won’t believe the fact that he lied to his mother.我不愿相信他对母亲撒

谎的事实。

(that引导同位语从句对fact的具体内容进行说明, that在其中不充当具体的句子成

分)

② I won’t believe the fact (that) he told me.我不愿相信他告诉我的事实。

(that引导定语从句对fact进行限定, that在该从句中充当宾语)

(3) 第三组例句:

① The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。 (that引导同位语从句对news的具体内容进行说明, that在其中不充当具体的句子成

分)

② The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year. 他告诉我

的消息是汤姆来年将出国。

(句中的第一个that引导定语从句限定先行词news, 第二个that引导表语从句)

(4) 第四组例句:

① We have no idea at all where he has gone.我们根本不知道他去哪里了。

(where引导同位语从句说明idea的具体内容)

② That’s the place where he was born.那是他出生的地方。

(where引导定语从句限定先行词place)

[考题1] There is much chance ____ Bill will recover from his injury in time

for the race. (2006天津)

A. that B. which C. until D. if

[答案] A

[解析] 下划线处引导chance的同位语从句, 说明可能性的具体内容, 应填入that。

[考题2] Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class ____ he

had to meet his uncle at the air port. (2006重庆)

A. why B. that C. where D. because

[答案] B

[解析] “he had to meet his uncle at the air port”本身是完整的陈述句, 用

以说明reason的具体内容, 应用that引导该同位语从句。

[考题3] Doris’ success lies in the fact ____ she is cooperative and eager

to learn from others. (2006上海春)

A. which B. that C. when D. why

[答案] B

[解析] fact后面通常由that引导同位语从句, that后接完整的陈述句说明fact

的具体内容。题意为: 她的成功决定于她非常愿意与别人合作并且向别人学习。

[考题4] A warm thought suddenly came to me ____ I might use the pocket money

to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. (2006安徽)

A. if B. when C. that D. which

[答案] C

[解析] “I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday”本身是完整的陈述句, 用以说明thought的具体内容, 应用that引导该同位

语从句。

[考题5] Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this

coming Christmas. (2004上海春)

A. which B. that C. what D. whether

[答案] B

[解析] 陈述客观情况的名词性从句的引导词之后是完整的陈述句, 引导词本身不充当该名词性从句中具体的句子成分, 有这样用法的引导词只能是that。本题中that引导的名词性从句“that he would visit me this coming Christmas”是说明promise具体内

容的同位语从句。

[考题6] ____ is no possibility ____ Bob can win the first prize in the match.(上

海2001)

A. There; that B. It; that

C. There; whether D. It; whether

[答案] A

[解析] 第一个下划线处应填入表存在的句型的引导词there, 第二个下划线处应填入that引导说明possibility的具体内容。“There is no possibility that ...”意为“没有??的可能性”, 又如: There is no possibility that you will work abroad.

你没有去国外工作的可能。

[考题7] There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private ears

____ road conditions need ____. (2003上海)

A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved

C. where; improving D. when; improving

[答案] A

[解析] 第一个下划线处应填入that引导说明problem的具体内容, 第二个下划线处应填入表被动动作的to be improved。注意: 本题中problem的同位语从句that road conditions need to be improved与problem之间由problem的后置定语involved in the

popularity of private ears进行了分隔。

[考题8] Do you have any idea ____ is actually going on in the classroom? (2005

辽宁)

A. that B. what C. as D. which

[答案] B

[解析] 说明idea具体内容的同位语中缺少表示“什么是???”的疑问主语, 应

选用what, 引导idea的同位语从句。

本章补充强化训练题

1. — Where is Jack?

— He is ____ you told him to go.

A. where B. which C. what D. 不填

2. The difficulty we now meet with is ____ we can persuade him to tell the truth.

A. whether B. that C. what D. how

3. America was ____ was first called “India” by Columbus.

A. what B. where C. the place D. there

4. After ten years, he changed a lot and looked different from ____ he used to

be.

A. that B. whom C. what D. who

5. The main facts in human life are five: birth, food, sleep, love and death. One could increase the number — add breathing for instance — but these five are

the most obvious. Let us ask ourselves ____ our lives.

A. they play in what part B. they play what part in

C. what part they play in D. in what part they play

6. My hometown is quite different from ____ before.

A. that it was B. it was C. what it was D. which it was

7. ____ is ____ the students to find out the meaning and the usage of new words.

A. What a dictionary does; help B. What dictionary does; to help

C. How a dictionary does; help D. All that a dictionary does; helps

8. ____ is worth doing at all is worth doing well.

A. Whatever B. Whoever C. However it D. Whatever it

9. You can choose ____ book you like among these.

A. no matter what B. whatever C. whose D. whichever

10. You can take ____ much you want and ____ you want to.

A. Whatever; when B. Whenever; however

C. however; whatever D. however; whoever

11. Was it at the very beginning ____ Mr. White made the decision ____ we should

send more fire’fighters there?

A. when; which B. that; that

C. when; so D. where; what

12. ____ a plan to deal with it is important.

A. What we should work out B. We should work out

C. That we should work out D. That what we should work out

13. ____ the boss said at the meeting isn’t true astonished all of us.

A. That B. What C. What that D. That what

14. ____ comes back first is supposed to win the prize.

A. Anybody B. Who C. Whoever D. No matter who

15. The reason ____ I plan to go is ____ she will be disappointed if I don’t.

A. that; because B. why; that C. why; because D. that; for

16. — I fell off my horseback and broke my leg yesterday.

— Is that ____ you drank too much?

A. why B. how C. because D. when

本章补充强化训练题参考答案

1.A 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.C 6.C 7.A 8.A 9.D 10.C

11.B 12.C 13.D 14.C 15.B 16.C

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